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|Currency|| Euro (€) |
CFP Franc (XPF) (Pacific overseas territories)
|Area|| 643,801km² |
|Population|| 63,929,000 in metropolitan France |
66,616,416 in all France (2014 estimates)
|Language|| French |
recognized locally: Alsatian, Catalan, Corsican, Breton, Gallo, Occitan, some languages of New Caledonia
|Religion||45% Christian, 3% Muslim, 1% Jewish, 1% Buddhist, 6% other religion, 44% none or not stated|
|Electricity||220-230V, 50Hz. Outlets: CEE7/5 (protruding male earth pin), accepting CEE 7/5 (Grounded), CEE 7/7 (Grounded) or CEE 7/16 (non-grounded) plugs|
|Time Zone||UTC +1|
France is the country that more people enjoy visiting than any other.
France is geographically one of the most diverse countries in Europe. Its cities contain some of the greatest treasures in Europe, its countryside is prosperous and well tended and it boasts dozens of major tourist attractions, like Paris, the French Riviera, the Atlantic beaches, the winter sport resorts of the French Alps, the castles of the Loire Valley, Brittany and Normandy. France is renowned for its gastronomy (particularly wines and cheeses), history, culture and fashion.
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“It is only with the heart that one can see rightly. What is essential is invisible to the eye.” — Antoine de Saint Exupéry, from The Little Prince
France has been the world’s most popular tourist destination for over twenty years (83.0 million in 2012).
Metropolitan France is in Western Europe sharing frontiers with Belgium, Luxembourg and Germany to the northeast, Switzerland to the east, Italy to the south-east. Spain and the small country of Andorra are to the south-west, across the Pyrenees mountain range. The Mediterranean Sea laps the south of France, with the Principality of Monaco forming a small enclave. To the west, France has a long Atlantic Ocean coastline, while to the north lies the English Channel, across which lies the last of France’s neighbours, England (part of the United Kingdom).
In the Caribbean, France borders the Netherlands via the French territory of Saint-Martin which borders the Dutch territory of Sint Maarten. Five oversea regions also form part of France: Martinique and Guadeloupe in the Caribbean, French Guiana in South America, and Reunion and Mayotte, both off the coast of Madagascar. Numerous French oversea territories also exist around the Earth with varying status.
A lot of variety, but temperate winters and mild summers on most of the territory, and especially in Paris. Mild winters and hot summers along the Mediterranean and in the southwest (the latter has lots of rain in winter). Mild winters (with lots of rain) and cool summers in the northwest (Brittany). Cool to cold winters and hot summer along the German border (Alsace). Along the Rhône Valley, there is an occasional strong, cold, dry, north-to-northwesterly wind known as the mistral.
Cold winters with lots of the snow in the Mountainous regions: Alps, Pyrenees, Auvergne.
When to travel
If possible, try to avoid French school holidays and Easter, because hotels are very likely to be overbooked and traffic on the roads is simply awful.
- Holidays: search internet for [French school holidays], as they vary from region to region. Mostly, the winter holidays are 10 Feb-10 Mar. The spring holidays are often 10 Apr-10 May.
Winter gets very cold, sometimes freezing. Make sure to bring appropriate clothing to keep you warm while visiting.
Hotels are very likely to be overbooked and road traffic will be awful during the 1 May, 8 May, 11 Nov, Easter Weekend, Ascension weekend too.
France has been populated since the Neolithic period. The Dordogne region is especially rich in prehistoric caves, some used as habitation, others are temples with remarkable paintings of animals and hunters, like those found at Lascaux.
Rise and fall of the Roman empire
Written History began in France with the invasion of the territory by the Romans, between 118 and 50 BC. Starting then, the territory which is today called France was part of the Roman Empire, and the Gauls (name given to local Celts by the Romans), who lived there before Roman invasions, became acculturated “Gallo-Romans”.
With the fall of the Roman empire, what was left were areas inhabited by descendants of intermarriages between Gallo-Romans and “barbaric” easterners (Mainly the Franks, but also other tribes like the “burgondes”).
The legacy of the Roman presence is still visible, particularly in the southern part of the country where Roman circuses are still used for bullfights and rock and roll shows. Some of the main roads still follow the routes originally traced 2,000 years ago, and the urban organisation of many old town centres still transcript the cardo and the decumanus of the former Roman camp (especially Paris). The other main legacy was the Catholic Church which can be, arguably, considered as the only remnant of the civilization of that time
Clovis, who died in 511, is considered as the first French king although his realm was not much more than the area of the present Île de France, around Paris. Charlemagne, who was crowned emperor of the Holy Roman Empire in 800, was the first strong ruler. He united under his rule territories which extend today in Belgium, Germany and Italy. His capital was Aix-la-Chapelle (now in Germany, known as Aachen).
The country was under attack by the Vikings who came from the north and navigated upstream the rivers to plunder the cities and abbeys, it was also under attack from the south by the Muslim Saracens who were established in Spain. The Vikings were given a part of the territory (today’s Normandy) in 911 and melted fast in the Feudal system. The Saracens were stopped in 732 in Poitiers by Charles Martel, grand father of Charlemagne, a rather rough warrior who was later painted as a national hero.
Starting with Charlemagne, a new society starts to settle, based on the personal links of feudalism. This era is named middle age. Although generally seen as an era of stagnation, it can more be described as a very complex mix of periods of economic and cultural developments (Music and poems of the Troubadours and Trouveres, building of the Romantic, then Gothic cathedrals), and recessions due to pandemic disease and wars.
In 987, Hughes Capet was crowned as king of France ; he is the root of the royal families who later governed France. In 1154 much of the western part of France went under English rule with the wedding of Alienor d’Aquitaine to Henry II (Count of Anjou, born in the town of Le Mans). Some kings of the Plantagenet dynasty are still buried in France, the most famous being Richard I, of Walter Scott’s fame, and his father Henry II, who lies in the Abbaye de Fontevraud. The struggle between the English and French kings between 1337 and 1435 is known as the Hundred Years War and the most famous figure, considered as a national heroine, is Joan of Arc.
The making of a modern state nation
The beginning of the 16th century saw the end of the feudal system and the emergence of France as a “modern” state with its border relatively close to the present ones (Alsace, Corsica, Savoy, the Nice region weren’t yet French). Louis XIV who was king from 1643 to 1715 (72 years) was probably the most powerful monarch of his time. French influence extended deep in western Europe, its language was used in the European courts and its culture was exported all over Europe.
That era and the following century also saw the expansion of France on the other continents. This started a whole series of wars with the other colonial empires, mainly England (later Britain) and Spain over the control of North America, the Caribbean, South American, Africa, and Southeast Asia.
The French Revolution started in 1789, leading to the overthrow of King Louis XVI of the House of Bourbon and the creation of the First French Republic. Although this period was also fertile in bloody excesses it was, and still is, a reference for many other liberation struggles. In 1791, the other monarchies of Europe looked with outrage at the revolution and its upheavals, and considered whether they should intervene, either in support of the deposed King Louis XVI, or to prevent the spread of revolution, or to take advantage of the chaos in France. The French Revolutionary Wars were a series of major conflicts fought between the French Republic and several European Monarchies from 1792 to 1802.
Napoléon Bonaparte seized power in a coup d’état, reunited the country and declared himself Emperor of the French, he crowned by Pope Pius VII as Napoleon I of the French Empire, on 2 December 1804 at Notre Dame de Paris. His militaristic ambition which, at first, made him the ruler of most of western Europe were finally his downfall. In 1815 he was defeated in Waterloo (Belgium) by the Seventh Coalition – United Kingdom, the Netherlands, Hanover, Nassau, Brunswick, and Prussia. He is still revered in some Eastern European countries as its armies and its government brought with them the ideas of the French philosophers.
20th and 21st centuries
1905 saw the separation of the Church from the State. This was a traumatic process, especially in rural areas. The French state carefully avoids any religious recognition. The Church was badly hurt and lost half its priests. In the long run, however, it gained autonomy—for the French State no longer had a voice in choosing bishops. In the early 21st century, the French Institute of Public Opinion (IFOP) 2009 study, based on self declaration in a percentage of the total French population, 64.4% of the population identified as Catholic but with only 15.2% regularly attending or occasionally attending Mass, and 4.5% attending Mass weekly.
The First World War (1914-1918) was a disaster for France, even though the country was ultimately a victor. At first many welcomed the war to avenge the humiliation of defeat and loss of territory to Germany following the Franco-Prussian War. However very high losses and almost no gain on the Western Front change opinions of the war. A significant part of the male workforce was killed or disabled and a large part of the country and industry destroyed. When World War II (1939-45) was declared there was little enthusiasm and much dread in France at the prospect of enduring another major war. In the spring of 1940 Hitler’s army invaded France, the army and government of the Third French Republic collapse and France surrendered in June of 1940. With British troops fleeing France an atmosphere of humiliation and defeat swept over the country. On the other hand, the French Resistance conducted sabotage operations inside German-occupied France. To support the Allied invasion of Normandy in June 1944, various groups increased their sabotage and guerilla attacks.
Since the end of WWII France went through a period of reconstruction and prosperity came back with the development of industry. The Fifth Republic (1958-to the present) emerged from the collapse of the French Fourth Republic (1946-58) and replaced the prior parliamentary government with a semi-presidential system. It is France’s third-longest-enduring political regime, after the pre-French Revolution Ancien Régime and the Third Republic.
France began the process of decolonisation after a rise in nationalism following WWII.
In 1963 France and West Germany signed the Élysée Treaty, known as the Friendship Treaty, the treaty established a new foundation for relations that ended centuries of rivalry between them. France would play a role in what would eventually became the European Union. One of the most visible consequence being the introduction in 2002 of the euro (€), now the common currency of eighteen of the twenty-eight EU members and also used by seven other European countries.
In 2014, France is a republic with a President elected for a 5-year term (officially the French Republic and some would describe it as a “Unitary semi-presidential and constitutional republic”). Some current main issues are the further integration of the country into the EU and the adoption of common standards for the economy, defence, immigrant rights, and so on.
The ban on religious symbols of 15 March 2004 in public schools is an application of the French policy of laïcité (secularism) under which religious symbols such as Muslim veils, Jewish Kippahs and Sikh turbans have been banned from schools. This has meant that the guarantees for freedom of religion have been curtailed for faith groups in France. Although France is extremely safe, anyone from an openly religious, faith community may still need to exercise care when travelling in France.
Electricity is supplied at 220 to 230V 50Hz. Outlets are CEE7/5 (protruding male earth pin) and accept either CEE 7/5 (Grounded), CEE 7/7 (Grounded) or CEE 7/16 (non-grounded) plugs. Older German-type CEE 7/4 plugs are not compatible as they do not accommodate the earth pin found on this type of outlet. However, most modern European appliances are fitted with the hybrid CEE 7/7 plug which fits both CEE 7/5 (Belgium & France) and CEE 7/4 (Germany, Netherlands, Spain, Sweden and most of Europe) outlets.
Plugs Travellers from the UK, Ireland, Australia, New Zealand, Denmark, Italy, Switzerland and other countries using 230V 50Hz which use different plugs simply require a plug adaptor to use their appliances in France. Plug adaptors for plugs from the US and UK are available from electrical and “do-it-yourself” stores such as Bricorama.
Voltage: Travellers from the US, Canada, Japan and other countries using 110V, 60Hz may need a voltage converter. However, some laptops, mobile phone chargers and other devices can accept either 110V or 230V so only require a simple plug adaptor. Check the voltage rating plates on your appliances before connecting them.
France is divided into 22 administrative regions, which themselves can be grouped into seven cultural regions:
| Île-de-France |
The region surrounding the French capital, Paris.
| Northern France (Nord-Pas de Calais, Picardy, Normandy) |
A region where the world wars have left many scars.
| Northeastern France (Alsace, Lorraine, Champagne-Ardenne, Franche-Comté) |
A region where wider European culture (and especially Germanic culture) has merged with the French, giving rise to interesting results.
| Great West (Brittany, Pays de la Loire) |
An agriculture-based oceanic region with a culture greatly influenced by the ancient Celtic peoples.
| Central France (Centre-Val de Loire, Poitou-Charentes, Burgundy, Limousin, Auvergne) |
A largely agricultural and vinicultural region, featuring river valleys, chateaux and historic towns.
| Southwestern France (Aquitaine, Midi-Pyrenees) |
A region of sea and wine, with nice beaches over the Atlantic Ocean and young high mountains close to Spain.
| Southeastern France (Rhône-Alpes, Languedoc-Roussillon, Provence-Alpes-Côte d’Azur, Corsica) |
The primary tourist region of the country outside of Paris, with a warm climate and azure sea, contrasting with the mountainous French Alps.
Each administrative region is divided into a number of departments. Each department is allocated a 2 digit number. This number forms the first 2 digits of the 5 digit French postcode.
- French Polynesia (Polynésie Française) — post-card tropical islands in Oceania
- New Caledonia (Nouvelle Caledonie) — long-shaped island in Oceania
- Saint-Pierre and Miquelon (Saint Pierre et Miquelon) — small islands off the Canadian coast
The following overseas territories are remote possessions kept as natural reservations:
- French Southern and Antarctic territories (Terres Antarctiques et Australes Françaises, or TAAF), consisting of Terre Adélie in Antarctica and some islands in the Indian Ocean
- Scattered Islands of the Indian Ocean (Iles Eparses): Europa Island, Bassas da India, Juan de Nova Island, Glorioso Islands (Glorieuses)
A very limited form of tourism is available in the TAAF islands.
France has numerous cities of interest to travellers, below is a list of nine of the most notable:
- Paris — the “City of Light”, romance and the Eiffel Tower
- Bordeaux — city of wine, traditional stone mansions and smart terraces
- Bourges — gardens, canals and a cathedral listed as a UNESCO heritage site
- Lille — a dynamic northern city known for its handsome centre and active cultural life
- Lyon — France’s second city with a history from Roman times to the Resistance
- Marseille — Third largest French city with a harbour as big as its place as the heart of Provence
- Nantes — the “Greenest City” and, according to some, the best place to live in Europe
- Strasbourg — famous for its historical centre, and home to many European institutions
- Toulouse — the “Pink City”, for its distinctive brick architecture, main city of Occitania
- Camargue — one of Europe’s largest river deltas and wetlands
- Corsica — the birthplace of Napoleon, a unique island with a distinct culture and language
- Disneyland Paris — the most visited attraction in Europe
- French Alps — home to the highest mountain in Western Europe, the Mont Blanc
- French Riviera (Côte d’Azur) — Mediterranean coastline of France with plenty of upper class seaside resorts, yachts and golf courses
- Loire Valley — the world-famous Loire Valley, best known for its wines and chateaux
- Luberon — the stereotypical Provence of picturesque villages, joie de vivre and wine
- Mont Saint Michel — second most-visited sight in France, a monastery and town built on a tiny outcrop of rock in the sand, which is cut off from the mainland at high tide
- Verdon Gorge — beautiful river canyon in a turquoise-green, great for kayaking, hiking, rock-climbing or just driving around the limestone cliffs
Minimum validity of travel documents
France is a member of the Schengen Agreement.
There are no border controls between countries that have signed and implemented this treaty – the European Union (except Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Ireland, Romania and the United Kingdom), Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway and Switzerland. Likewise, a visa granted for any Schengen member is valid in all other countries that have signed and implemented the treaty. But be careful: not all EU members have signed the Schengen treaty, and not all Schengen members are part of the European Union. This means that there may be spot customs checks but no immigration checks (travelling within Schengen but to/from a non-EU country) or you may have to clear immigration but not customs (travelling within the EU but to/from a non-Schengen country).
Please see the article Travel in the Schengen Zone for more information about how the scheme works and what entry requirements are.
Citizens of Albania, Andorra, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Bahamas, Barbados, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Brunei, Canada, Chile, Costa Rica, Croatia, El Salvador, Guatemala, Holy See, Honduras, Israel, Macedonia, Mauritius, Monaco, Montenegro, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, San Marino, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Seychelles, Taiwan and Uruguay, as well as British Nationals (Overseas), are permitted to work in France without the need to obtain a visa or any further authorisation for the period of their 90 day visa-free stay. All other visa-exempt nationals are exempt from holding a visa for short-term employment if they possess a valid work permit and can present this work permit at the port of entry, with limited exceptions. However, this ability to work visa-free does not necessarily extend to other Schengen countries. For more information, visit this webpage of the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs.
Foreign nationals who are not visa-exempt (e.g. South Africans) must make a ‘declaration of entry’ (déclaration d’entrée) at a police station or to border inspection personnel if they arrive in France directly from another country of Schengen Area (e.g. Italy), unless they hold a long-term visa or residence permit issued by a Schengen member state. Their passports will be endorsed by the authorities to prove that such a declaration has been made.
If you intend to stay in France for longer than 90 days, regardless of purpose, an advance long-stay visa is always required of non-EEA or non-Swiss citizens. It is almost impossible to switch from a “C” (visitor) entry status to a “D” (long-stay) status from inside France, and you must apply for a long-stay visa in-person at the consulate responsible for your place of residence.
As of 2009, certain categories of long-stay visa, such as “visitor” (visiteur), family (vie privée et familiale), “student” (étudiant), “intern” (stagiaire) “scientist-researcher” (scientifique-chercheur), “salaried worker” (salarié), and “short-term worker” (travailleur temporaire), do not require holders to obtain a separate residence permit (carte de séjour) for the first year of stay in France. However, the long-stay visa must be validated by the Office Française de l’Immigration et de l’Intégration (OFII) within the first three months of entering France to be valid for longer than those three months. This is done by sending in a form to the OFII received along with the visa with the address of residence in France, completing a medical examination, and attending an introductory meeting to validate the visa. The tax required for validation (€58 for students and interns; €241 for workers except those under the short-term worker category, scientists, visitors, and family) is, as of February 2013, collected at the end of the validation process inside France. This validated visa will serve as a residence permit and, likewise, allow travel throughout the other Schengen countries for up to 90 days in a 6-month period. To stay in France after a validated visa expires, however, and/or if you hold a visa which states carte de séjour à solliciter dès l’arrivée, a carte de séjour (residence permit card) must be obtained at the préfecture responsible for your place of residence within two months of entry into France or two months before the visa expires. Please consult the OFII website for more information.
French overseas departments and territories (DOM-TOM) are not part of the Schengen Area and operate a separate immigration regime from mainland France. As such, if you intend to visit them, you will need a separate visa (if required for your nationality).
Flights to/from Paris
The main international airport, Roissy – Charles de Gaulle (IATA: CDG) is likely to be your port of entry if you fly into France from outside Europe. CDG is the home of Air France (AF), the national company, for most intercontinental flights. AF and the companies forming the SkyTeam Alliance (Dutch KLM, Aeromexico, Alitalia, Delta Air Lines, Korean Air,) use Terminal 2 while most other foreign airlines use Terminal 1. A third terminal is used for charter flights. If transferring through CDG (especially between the various terminals) it is important to leave substantial time between flights. Ensure you have no less than one hour between transfers. Add more if you have to change terminals as you will need to clear through security.
Transfers to another flight in France: AF operates domestic flights from CDG too, but a lot of domestic flights, and also some internal European flights, use Orly, the second Paris airport. For transfers within CDG you can use the free bus shuttle linking all terminals, train station, parking lots and hotels on the platform. For transfers to Orly there is a bus link operated by AF (free for AF passengers). The two airports are also linked by a local train (RER) which is slightly less expensive, runs faster but is much more cumbersome to use with heavy luggage. AF has agreements with the SNCF, the national rail company, which operates TGVs (see below) out of CDG airports (some trains carry flight numbers). The TGV station is in Terminal 2 and is on the route of the free shuttle. For transfers to the city centre of Paris, see Paris. Paris Star Shuttle offers transfers from CDG into Paris.
Some low-cost airlines, including Ryanair and Volare, fly to Beauvais airport situated about 80km northwest of Paris. Buses to Paris are provided by the airlines. Check schedules and fares on their websites.
Flights to/from regional airports
Other airports outside Paris have flights to/from international destinations: Bordeaux, Clermont-Ferrand, Lille, Lyon, Marseille, Nantes, Nice, Toulouse have flights to cities in western Europe and North Africa; these airports are hubs to smaller airports in France and may be useful to avoid the transfer between the two Paris airports. Two airports, Bâle-Mulhouse and Geneva, are shared by France and Switzerland and can allow entry into either country.
Many airlines operate flights between regional airports in the UK and France:
Eastern Airways flies between Southampton and Lorient.
Flybe flies direct from the UK to Avignon (Provence), Bergerac, Béziers, Bordeaux, Brest (Brittany), Caen, Chambéry, Clermont-Ferrand, Geneva, La Rochelle, Limoges, Nantes, Nice, Paris CDG, Paris Orly, Pau (Pyrénées), Perpignan, Rennes, Toulouse and Tours.
Ryanair  flies direct from the UK to Bergerac, Béziers, Biarritz, Bordeaux, Brive (Dordogne), Carcassonne, Deauville (Normandy), Dinard (Saint-Malo), Grenoble, La Rochelle, Limoges, Lourdes, Marseille, Montpellier, Nîmes, Perpignan, Poitiers, Rodez, Toulon (Côte d’Azur) and Tours.
France is served by numerous services from England to France:
- Brittany Ferries  – operate freight and passenger services from Portsmouth to Caen, Portsmouth to Cherbourg, Portsmouth to St Malo, Poole to Cherbourg and Plymouth to Roscoff.
- Condor Ferries  – operate freight and passenger services from Portsmouth to Cherbourg, Poole to St Malo and Weymouth to St Malo.
Prices vary considerably depending on which route you choose. Generally the cheapest route is the short sea route across the English Channel which is Dover to Calais, so it is worth comparing prices before you decide which is the most suitable route to France.
Passengers travelling from Dover by ferry to France go through French passport/identity card checks in the UK before boarding, rather than on arrival in France. Passengers travelling from all other UK ports to France go through French passport/identity card checks on arrival in France.
There are also connections from Ireland to France:
Numerous companies now act as agents for the various ferry companies much like Expedia and Travelocity act as agents for airlines allowing the comparison of various companies and routes. Two well known brands are Ferryonline  and AFerry.co.uk .
The French rail company, SNCF, provides direct service from most European countries using regular trains. French train tickets can be purchased directly in the US from RailEurope a subsidiary of the SNCF.
- Eurostar  runs high-speed trains to France from the United Kingdom and Belgium. Passengers travelling from the UK to France go through French passport/identity card checks in the UK before boarding, rather than on arrival in France. Passengers travelling from Brussels to Lille/Calais/Paris are within the Schengen Area. Eurostar operates the following routes from France:
- Paris (Gare du Nord) direct to London (St Pancras International) (2h 15min), Ebbsfleet and Ashford and via Lille to Brussels (Zuid-Midi).
- Lille (Europe) direct to London (St Pancras International) (1h 20min), Ebbsfleet, Ashford and Brussels (Zuid-Midi)
- Calais (Fréthun) direct to London (St Pancras International) (1h 2min; 2-3 daily), Ebbsfleet (44min; 3-4 daily), Ashford (35min; 1 daily) and Brussels (Zuid-Midi) (1h 9min; 2-3 daily) Note: Although Brussels Midi-Calais Fréthun can’t be purchased on the Eurostar website, it is available on the Belgian Railways website 
- Thalys uses high-speed TGV trains to connect Paris to Brussels and onward to cities in the Netherlands and Germany. It can be a bit expensive compared to normal trains.
- Intercity trains leave for all parts of Europe, including overnight trains to San Sebastian in Spain, Porto and Lisbon in Portugal.
France has several Eurolines-hubs, .
Several weekends each year in France its Black Saturday (Samedi noir) because of the start or end of school holidays and the coinciding traffic jams on the French roads. When possible it is wise to avoid these black days. See for the actual forecast the website of the French traffic service .
See Driving in France.
- As according to an agreement with the CFL, the Belgian railways are directing all passenger trains to France through Luxembourg (thus causing an extra unnecessary border crossing), it may be useful to cross the border directly, on foot. The terminus of the French railways in Longwy can be reached from the Belgian train station of Halanzy (the line operates only on work days, however), or from the bigger Belgian stations of Arlon or Virton. Between these two stations there’s a bus operated by the TEC company which stops at Aubange Place, a good point of departure/arrival for the walking tour. The path leads almost exclusively through inhabited areas in the community of Mont-Saint-Martin (yet partially in a forest if you go to/from Halanzy) and takes some 7 km. The city of Longwy itself is quite steep in some of its parts, so pay attention to this when planning your route.
- There are domestic Belgian trains that terminate in Lille (station Lille-Flanders).
- Between the De Panne terminus of the Belgian railways (and the Coast tram – Kusttram) and the French coastal city of Dunkerque, there is a bus line run by DK’BUS Marine: . It may, however, be operating only in certain time of the year. It is also possible to take a DK’BUS bus which goes to the closest possible distance of the border and then cross it on foot by walking on the beach and arriving at a convenient station of the Coast tram, such as Esplanade.
The following carriers offer domestic flights within France:
- Air France  (Ajaccio (Campo Dell Oro Airport), Annecy-Meythet Airport, Avignon-Caum Airport, Bastia (Poretta Airport), Biarritz Parme Airport, Bordeaux Airport, Brest (Guipavas Airport), Caen (Carpiquet Airport), Calvi (Sainte Catherine Airport), Clermont-Ferrand (Aulnat Airport), Figari (Sud Corse Airport), Lannion (Servel Airport), Le Havre (Octeville Airport), Lille (Lesquin Airport), Limoges (Bellegarde Airport), Lorient (Lann Bihoue Airport), Lyon Satolas Airport, Marseille Airport, Metz/Nancy (Metz-Nancy-Lorraine Airport), Montpellier (Mediterranee Airport), Mulhouse/Basel (EuroAirport French), Nantes Atlantique Airport, Nice (Cote D’Azur Airport), Paris (Charles De Gaulle Airport), Paris (Orly Field), Pau (Uzein Airport), Perpignan (Llabanere Airport), Quimper (Pluguffan Airport), Rennes (St Jacques Airport), Rodez (Marcillac Airport), Rouen (Boos Airport), Strasbourg (Entzheim Airport), Tarbes Ossun Lourdes Airport, Toulon (Hyeres Airport), Toulouse (Blagnac Airport))
- Hop!  (Aurillac Airport, Bastia (Poretta Airport), Beziers Vias Airport, Bordeaux Airport, Brest (Guipavas Airport), Brive-La-Gaillarde (Laroche Airport), La Rochelle (Laleu Airport), Lyon Satolas Airport, Mulhouse/Basel (EuroAirport French), Nantes Atlantique Airport, Paris (Orly Field), Poitiers (Biard Airport), Rennes (St Jacques Airport), Saint Nazaire (Montoir Airport), Toulouse (Blagnac Airport))
- Air Corsica  (Ajaccio (Campo Dell Oro Airport), Bastia (Poretta Airport), Calvi (Sainte Catherine Airport), Figari (Sud Corse Airport), Lyon Satolas Airport, Marseille Airport, Nice (Cote D’Azur Airport))
- Twin Jet  (Cherbourg (Maupertus Airport), Marseille Airport, Metz/Nancy (Metz-Nancy-Lorraine Airport), Paris (Orly Field), Saint Etienne (Boutheon Airport), Toulouse (Blagnac Airport))
- easyJet  (Bastia, Biarritz, Brest, Lyon, Nantes, Nice (Côte D’Azur Airport), Paris (Charles De Gaulle Airport), Paris (Orly), Toulouse (Blagnac Airport))
- Ryanair  (Marseille to/from Bordeaux/Brest/Lille/Nantes/Paris Beauvais/Paris Vatry/Tours; Paris Beauvais to/from Beziers/Marseille)
- Eastern Airways  (Lyon to Lorient)
- Hex’Air  (Le Puy (Loudes Airport), Lyon Satolas Airport, Paris (Orly Field), Rodez (Marcillac Airport))
- Heli Securite  (Cannes (Croisette Heliport), Nice (Cote D’Azur Airport))
- Nice Helicopteres  (Cannes (Croisette Heliport), Nice (Cote D’Azur Airport))
The following carriers offer direct flights between metropolitan France (French territory geographically situated in Europe) and DOM-TOM (French overseas departments and territories):
- Air Austral  (Réunion)
- Air Caraïbes  (French Guiana (Cayenne), Guadeloupe (Pointe-à-Pitre) and Martinique (Fort-de-France))
- Air France  (French Guiana (Cayenne), Guadeloupe (Pointe-à-Pitre), Martinique (Fort-de-France), Réunion)
- ‘Corsair International  (French Guiana (Cayenne), Guadeloupe (Pointe-à-Pitre), Martinique (Fort-de-France), Mayotte (Dzaoudzi), Réunion)
- XL Airways  (Guadeloupe (Pointe-à-Pitre), Martinique (Fort-de-France), Mayotte (Dzaoudzi), Réunion)
Although the 5 DOM-TOM (French Guiana, Guadeloupe, Martinique, Mayotte and Réunion) which can be reached directly by air from metropolitan France are part of the European Union, they are outside the Schengen Area and the EU VAT Area (and hence the 5 DOM-TOM apply a different, but similar, immigration regime to metropolitan France which applies the Schengen rules). Since 2009/2010, when flying from metropolitan France to these 5 DOM-TOM, there are only immigration checks on departure from metropolitan France (immigration checks on arrival in these 5 DOM-TOM have been removed). However, when flying from these 5 DOM-TOM to metropolitan France, there are immigration checks both on departure from the DOM-TOM and upon arrival in metropolitan (known in French as ‘double contrôle d’identité’). For EU, EEA and Swiss citizens, a valid passport or national identity card is sufficient for the immigration checks both in metropolitan France and in the DOM-TOMs. Non-EU/EEA/Swiss citizens who are visa-exempt for metropolitan France will also be visa-exempt for the DOM-TOMs (and, in addition, certain nationalities which require a visa for metropolitan France/Schengen Area will not require one for the DOM-TOMs).
It is possible to reach the French overseas territories of Saint Barthélemy and Saint Martin (L’Espérance Airport) from metropolitan France by transiting onto a connecting flight at Pointe-à-Pitre in Guadeloupe without stopping in a third country. Therefore, it is possible for EU, EEA and Swiss citizens to visit these territories with a national identity card only (and not a passport).
The following carriers offer flights between metropolitan France and DOM-TOM with a stopover in a third country:
- Air France  (French Polynesia (Papeete) via the United States (Los Angeles)
- Air Tahiti Nui  (French Polynesia (Papeete) via the United States (Los Angeles))
To reach the other DOM-TOM (New Caledonia, Saint Pierre and Miquelon and Wallis and Futuna) from metropolitan France, it is necessary to transit between connecting flights in a third country.
See also: Driving in France
France drives on the right.
A French driver flashing headlights is asserting right of way and warning you of intentions and presence. Do not use it to mean thanks. Flashing headlights can also mean, “Watch out as there’s a police speed-check ahead of you!” Horns should be used only in legitimate emergencies; use of the horn in urban areas outside such circumstances might win you a traffic ticket. Parisian drivers were notorious for honking their horns at anything and everything, though increased enforcement has greatly reduced this practice.
France has a well-developed system of highways. Most of the motorway (autoroute) links are toll roads. Some have toll stations giving you access to a section, others have entrance and exit toll stations. Don’t lose your entrance ticket or you will be charged for the longest distance. All toll stations accept major credit cards although may not accept foreign credit cards, or you can use the automatic booth, but only if your card is equipped with a chip.
Roads range from the narrow single-lane roads in the countryside to major highways. Most towns and cities were built before the general availability of the automobile and thus city centres tend to be unwieldy for cars. Keep this in mind when renting: large cars can be very unwieldy. It often makes sense to just park and then use public transportation.
Renting a car
Once you land in France you may need to use car hire services. Most of the leading companies operate from French airports and there is good merit in booking car hire in advance. It is a regular experience at smaller French airports to not get the type of car you booked online but an alternative model. Sometimes the alternative model is quite different so check carefully before accepting the vehicle and stand your ground if it does not match your booking request and is not suitable to your needs.
Most cars in France are equipped with standard transmissions, a fact that derives equally from the preferences of the driving public and the peculiarities of French licensing laws (automatic transmissions are generally only used by the elderly or those with physical disabilities). This extends to vehicle categories that in the US are virtually never equipped with a manual transmission, such as vans and large sedans. Accordingly, virtually all of the vehicles available for rent at the average car hire depot will be equipped with a manual gearbox. If you do not know how to drive a car with a manual transmission and don’t have the time to learn before your trip, be certain to reserve your rental car well in advance and confirm your reservation. Otherwise, you may find yourself in a car that is much larger than you can afford (or with no car at all).
It is a good tip when travelling in numbers to get one member of the party with hand luggage to go straight through to the car hire desk ahead of everybody else, this will avoid the crush once the main luggage is picked up from the conveyor.
For short term rentals, you will find numerous familiar big name agencies (Hertz, SIXT, Avis, Alamo) which you can book through a number of online portals and compare prices side by side (Orbitz, Kayak, Expedia). All of the above rental agencies usually have similar pricing, vehicles and rental policies. Although it not recommended, one will usually be able to wait until near last minute to book online and still get a car when it comes to short term rentals. In fact, there has been a recent surge in the last-minute car rental market, with an increasing number of start-ups promoting low-cost car hire services in different ways. One of these growing trends is car-pooling, which has exploded in the last decade. In fact, most of the biggest names in the market, such as BlaBlaCar and Covoiturage, are originally from France, though they have now expanded in neighbouring countries. Another novelty in this market, which is attracting a lot of attention, is renting cars for one-way trips around France, for one symbolic euro. Indeed, French startups such as DriiveMe now offer one-way, city-to-city car rentals for one euro net by putting in relation the logistical and car-conveying aspect of the car hire business to the demand side. These innovative solutions and growing trends highlight a growing market and new possibilities for people to travel cheaply throughout France.
However, for rentals exceeding three weeks in duration, it is often advantageous to use a “short term” lease buy back programs in which you need to book at least a few weeks in advance before departing. The lease buy back programs are uniquely French and offer a tax-free alternative to car rentals that can often have an overall lower cost and better value than a traditional car rental. The programs are typically run by the big three French auto makers Peugeot, Renault, and Citroen. Short term leasing offers clients a brand new vehicle, full insurance, unlimited mileage, and flexible driving rules compared to traditional car rentals. You must be a NON European resident to take part in this and one downfall is that you must have need for a car for more then three weeks in order to benefit from the service. Only certain agencies are authorized to sell these leases to US residents. Some of them include; Auto France, Inc. Peugeot(US), Citroen Europass (US), Renault USA (US).
France is a dreadful country for hitchhiking – especially if you’re male. Be patient, prepare yourself for a long wait or walk and in the meantime enjoy the landscape. A ride will come along in a few days since a lot of foreigners are on French roads. People who stop are usually friendly and not dangerous. They will like you more if you speak a little French. They never expect any money for the ride.
Remember that getting out of Paris by thumb is almost impossible. You can try your luck at the portes, but heavy traffic and limited areas for stopping will try your patience. It’s a good idea to take the local train to a nearby suburb as your chance of being picked up will increase dramatically.
Outside Paris, it’s advisable to try your luck after roundabouts. As it’s illegal to hitchhike on the motorways (autoroutes) and they are well observed by the police, you may try on a motorway entry. The greatest chance is at toll plazas (stations de péage), some of which require all cars to stop and are thus great places to catch a lift. Some tollbooths are really good, some not so good. If you’ve been waiting for a while with an indication of where to go, drop it and try with your thumb only. And also, you can try to get a ride to the next good spot in the wrong direction.
Note, though, that hitching from a péage, while a common practice, isn’t legal and French police or highway security, who are normally very tolerant of hitchhikers, may stop and force you to leave. You can get free maps in the toll offices – these also indicate where you can find the “all-stop-Péage”.
Your rights as a rail passenger
Trains are a great way to get around in France. You can get pretty much from anywhere to anywhere else by train. For long distances, use the TGV (Train a Grande Vitesse – High-Speed Train) on which reservations are obligatory. But, if you have time, take the slow train and enjoy the scenery. The landscape is part of what makes France one of the top tourist destinations in the world.
The French national railway network is managed by Réseaux Ferrés de France, and most of the trains are run by the SNCF  (Société nationale des chemins de fer français). For interregional trains you can get schedules and book tickets online. For regional trains, schedules can be found at ter-sncf.com  (choose your region, then “Carte and horaires” for maps and timetables). Booking is available in two classes: première classe (first class) is less crowded and more comfortable but can also be about 50% more expensive than deuxième classe (second class). Note that if your TGV is fully booked, step aboard seconds before the doors close, and look for the guard (“contrôleur”). He will find you a seat somewhere.
There are a number of different kinds of high speed and normal trains:
- TER (Train Express Régional): Regional trains and the backbone of the SNCF system. TER are slow but do serve most stations. Available on Eurail and InterRail passes.
- Intercités: As of 2012, the bundling of the former Corail services. Includes trains with compulsory reservation (former Téoz and the Lunéa night trains) and those for which reservations are optional (former Intercités). The reservation-optional trains are what one will often use on passes. Some trains go to regions that the TGV services don’t, namely in Auvergne.
- TGV (Trains à Grande Vitesse): The world-famous French high-speed trains run several times a day to the Southeast Nice(5-6h), Marseille (3h) and Avignon (2.5 h), the East Geneva (3h) or Lausanne, Switzerland and Dijon (1h15) , the Southwest Bordeaux (3h), the West Rennes (2h), Nantes (2h), Brest (4h) and the North Lille (1h). Eurostar to London (2h15) and Thalys to Brussels (1h20) use almost identical trains. Reservations are compulsory.
- iDTGV : A low-cost version of the TGV available to over 50 destinations on journeys of 3 hours or more. Tickets are only available online at the iDTGV website (prices starting from €19 (second class) and €29 (first class)) and must be printed out, or booked via the iDTGV mobile app.
- OUIGO : Another low-cost version of the TGV with tickets starting from €10. (Note that OUIGO does not go to central Paris, but rather Marne-la-Vallée/Chessy TGV station, which is 50 mins by RER A train from central Paris.) Tickets are only available online on the OUIGO website and must be printed out, or booked via the OUIGO mobile app. Also, an identity document (passport, national identity card or driving licence) must be presented with the ticket when boarding the train.
If you’ll be doing more than about 2 return journeys in France and are younger than 26, getting a “Carte 12-25″ will save you money. They cost €50, last a year, and give anywhere from a 25% to 60% discount depending on when you book the ticket and when you travel.
Booking tickets online can be quite a confusing process as it is possible to book the same journey through a number of different websites (in different languages and currencies). The fares are not always consistent so it pays to check the same trip on a number of sites.
- www.voyages-sncf.com  This is the French language booking website of the SNCF. (To ensure that you get the best prices, make sure you select France as the country, as the website may redirect you to the English language version with higher prices if you access the website from outside France.)
- www.tgv-europe.com  English language version of the SNCF site. Confusingly this site has a completely different layout and style from the French language version. There are a few strange quirks. The booking window requires you to enter your “country”, and if you select France (as someone already in France is likely to do), you are directed back to the French language site.
- www.raileurope.com   The RailEurope sites are booking agencies owned by the SNCF. Fares will often be more expensive on these sites than on the “official” sites, however they are generally easier to use than the SNCF sites.
Both TGV-Europe and Voyages-SNCF frequently report errors in booking attempts; one of the workarounds is to call SNCF to book over the phone (00.33.8220.127.116.11 “from outside France” The most attractive internet-only rates are not available there, but still it secures you a seat, and likely cheaper than if you buy in ticket office upon arrival.
If you travel by TER, there are a number of offers available for leisure passengers in each different region:
- TER Alsace: unlimited travel on regional trains and local transport – available in 2 formats (‘Alsa+ 24h’ as an individual ticket valid for 24 hours after validation, and ‘Alsa+ Group Journée’ as a ticket for a group of 2 to 5 valid on a Saturday, Sunday or public holiday)
- TER Aquitaine: unlimited travel for €11 between Bayonne and San Sebastian (Spain) for a weekend (or any 2 consecutive days during July and August)
- TER Auvergne: unlimited one-day travel on the TER for €30 within the Auvergne region for a group of up to 5
- TER Bourgogne: pay a fare of €1.80 for every 20km travelled by TER on Saturdays (and any accompanying passengers receive a 50% discount on their fare, i.e. €0.90/20km). Also, if you book 15 days in advance, you can purchase a Saturday day-trip ticket from Dijon to Paris (and return) for €20, a weekend ticket from Paris to Dijon (and return) for €20 and a weekend ticket from a number of Burgundy stations to Paris (and return) starting from €13.
- TER Bretagne: return ticket on Saturdays between any two TER stations for €12
- TER Champagne-Ardennes: on Saturdays, a group of up to 4 can travel at the price of 1 person. Also, on Saturdays you can travel from a number of towns in Champagne-Ardennes to Paris for €10 return.
- TER Franche-Comté: unlimited TER travel for one day (Saturdays and any day during school holidays) for €15.50 or for two days (weekend or any 2 consecutive days during school holidays) for €23.70
- TER Languedoc-Roussillon: travel between any 2 stations on 5 TER lines for just €1
- TER Lorraine: 40% discount off a regular price ticket on TER trains within the Lorraine region. With a Métrolor Loisirs ticket, a group of up to 5 passengers can enjoy a group discount on TER trains within the Lorraine region (2 passengers pay the Métrolor fare, and up to 3 others pay a €1 fare).
- TER Midi-Pyrénées: travel on certain TER trains at a rate of €2.50 per 40km
- TER Nord-Pas de Calais: unlimited one-day travel between Lille and Tournai/Courtai for €8 (free of charge for children under the age of 12 accompanied by an adult), and during the weekend, a 40% discount off train tickets between Lille and 125 stations in Belgium.
- TER Picardie: 50% discount if travelling in a group of 5 to 9 on TER trains within the Picardy region or to/from Paris
- TER Poitou-Charentes: a group of up to 5 can travel for €35 on TER trains within the Poitou-Charentes region on any 2 consecutive days
- TER Provence-Alpes-Côte d’Azur.: from June to September, unlimited travel within one département of the region for €15. Also, a Pass Isabelle Famille is available all-year, allowing unlimited TER one-day travel in the Alpes-Maritimes for a group of up to 4 (with at least 2 children under the age of 16) for €35. In addition, the Pass Bermuda/Pass Bermuda Duo is available during the summer, allowing unlimited TER one-day travel between Marseille and Miramas for €6 (1 person) or €10 (2 people).
- TER Rhône-Alpes: on certain Saturdays, if travelling in a group of 2 to 5 within the Rhône-Alpes/Geneva/Mâcon, you can get a 40% discount on the regular fare and children under the age of 12 travel free of charge.
If you’ve booked online on Voyages SNCF, you can pick up your ticket when you get to the train station. Contrary to a common misunderstanding, this web site allows you to order even if you live in the US; it is not concerned where you live, but where you will pick up the tickets or have them sent; thus if you wish to pick up the tickets at a SNCF train station or office, answer “France”. When at the station, just go to the counter (“Guichet”) and ask to have your ticket issued (“retirer votre billet”). You can ask “Je voudrais retirer mon billet, s’il vous plait”, or ‘zhe voo dray ruh teer ay mon bee yay, sill voo play’ and then hand them the paper with the reference number.
To find your train, locate your train number and the departure time on the departures board. There will be a track (“Voie”) number next to the train and departure time. Follow signs to that track to board the train. You will have a reserved seat on TGV trains. On other long-distance trains, you can optionally make reservations (at least one day in advance); if you do not have one you may use any unused seat not marked as reserved. To find your reserved seat, first look for the train coach number (“Voit. No”). Pay attention to the possible confusion between track number (Voie) and coach (voiture) number (abbreviated Voit) As you go down the track, the coach number will be displayed on an LCD screen on the car, or maybe just written in the window or right next to the doors.
The reserved seat rules are lax; you are allowed if you switch seats or use another seat (of the same class of course) if it is empty because the TGV is not fully booked or the other person agrees to switch with you. The only requirement is not to continue using a reserved seat if the person holding the reservation claims it.
On the main lines, TGVs often run in twos. There are two possibilities: either the two TGVs are considered as one train with one train number (in this case each coach has a different number); or the two TGVs are considered as separate trains which run together during a part of their journey, with two different train numbers (in this case, the two trains may have two close numbers such as 1527 and 1537), and each train will have its own coach numbering. So be sure you are in the right train (the train number is shown on the LCD screen, with the coach number).
If you are early, there is often a map somewhere on the track that will show how the train and car numbers will line up on the track according to letters that appear either on the ground or on signs above. That way, you can stand by the letter corresponding with your coach number and wait to board the train closest to your coach. You can easily go from one coach to another, so if you are very late, jump in any coach of the same class before the train starts, wait until most people are seated, then walk to your coach and seat number.
Beware: To avoid any form of fraud, your ticket must be punched by an automatic machine (“composteur”) before entering the platform area to be valid. Older machines are bright orange, newer machines are yellow and gray. The machines are situated at the entrance of all platforms. Failure to punch the ticket may entitle you to a fine even if you are a foreigner with a limited French vocabulary, depending on how the conductor feels, unless you approach the conductor as quickly as possible and request that your ticket be validated. Likewise if you step aboard a train without a ticket, you must find the conductor (“contrôleur”) and tell him about your situation before he finds you.
French information booths, especially in larger train stations, can be quite unhelpful, especially if you do not understand much French. If something does not seem to make sense, just say “excusez-moi” and they should repeat it.
Night train services also exist. These include couchettes second class (6 bunk beds in a compartment), first class (4 bunks) and Reclining seats.
Wagon-lits (a compartment with 2 real beds) were totally withdrawn from French overnight trains. However, you can ask for a “private room” (in first class). Night trains have occasionally been targeted by criminals, though this is not a widespread problem.
Taking a dog
Dogs are allowed on trains in France. Dogs that fit in a carrier (maximum 55 x 30 x 30cm) travel for €6, while larger dogs travel for 50% of the full adult fare. Ouigo and IDTGV have a set fare of €30 and €35 respectively each way for larger dogs. For more information on where to go in France with your dog, how to get there and where to stay, check out France: A Woof Guide by Paul Wojnicki.
Troc des trains
As it is cheaper to book and purchase train tickets, especially those with reservations, in advance, there is a relatively lively trading of non-exchangeable and non-reimburseable train tickets on the Internet. See http://www.trocdestrains.com/recherche-billet-train.html and http://www.kelbillet.com/billet-de-train-pas-cher/
Your rights as a taxi passenger
In France, taxis carry up to 9 passengers and are clearly marked with a ‘TAXI’ panel on top of the vehicle. The ‘TAXI’ panel will be green if the taxi is available and red if occupied or enroute to pick up a passenger. The term ‘taxi’ in France is the equivalent of a public hire taxi/cab in English-speaking countries – you can take a taxi either by hailing one on the street, going to a taxi stand/rank (station de taxi) or booking one through a taxi operator (central de radio taxi). On the other hand, the term ‘VTC’ (voiture de transport avec chauffeur) (see section below) in France is the equivalent of a private hire taxi/minicab in English-speaking countries – you can only take a VTC if it has been pre-booked.
Although, in general, you will be able to get a taxi relatively easily by going to a taxi stand (which you will often be able to find at airports, railway stations, town centres etc), you may need to book a taxi during peak hours, in rural towns/communities or if you require a large taxi. In Paris, you can book a taxi through the central taxi switchboard (tel: 01 45 30 30 30) or one of the 3 main taxi operators: Taxis G7 , Alpha Taxis  and Taxis Bleus . Outside Paris, you can find a list of taxi operators and independent taxi drivers by searching in the Yellow Pages (Pages Jaunes).
If you book a taxi, when it arrives at the pick-up point, the taximeter may already be running. This is legally permitted as the taxi driver is allowed to turn on the meter as soon as he/she receives the request from the operator to pick you up (this journey to the pick-up point is known as the ‘course d’approche’).
All taxis are obliged to have a taximeter (taximètre). The fare will be determined according to the taximeter. The fare displayed on the taximeter is calculated according to the tariff which is set annually by the departement where the taxi has been registered. The tariff information must be clearly displayed on a sheet inside the taxi. In Paris, the taxi fare is calculated based on a pick-up charge of €2.60 and 3 different types of tariffs (Tariff A is €1.04 per km/€32.00 per hour and applies Monday to Saturday from 10am to 5pm; Tariff B is €1.27 per km/€37.63 per hour and applies Monday to Saturday from 5pm to 10am and Sundays from 7am to midnight; Tariff C is €1.54 per km/€35.10 per hour and applies on Sundays from 12am to 7am). Outside Paris, the pick-up charge varies from €0.50 to €3.40 and there are 4 different types of tariffs (Tariff A applies for a return journey during the day Monday to Saturday; Tariff B a return journey during the evening Monday to Saturday and all day Sundays and public holidays; Tariff C a single journey during the day Monday to Saturday; Tariff D a single journey during the evening Monday to Saturday and all day Sundays and public holidays). The taximeter must indicate which type of tariff is being used to calculate the taxi fare. When a taxi is stationary or moving slowly, the taximeter calculates the fare per hour instead of per kilometre.
In addition to the fare indicated on the metre, the taxi driver is permitted to add certain fare supplements (e.g. 4th passenger supplement; baggage supplement; pet animal supplement; supplement for picking up from a railway station or airport). However, all fare supplements must be clearly stated on the taxi fare information sheet displayed inside the taxi. If there are any road tolls, the taxi driver can only add the cost of the road toll to the fare if the passenger has agreed in advance, otherwise the fare includes the cost of the road toll. Road tolls can never been added to the fare if they were incurred during the ‘course d’approche’ before the driver picked up the passenger.
The tariff set by the departément where the taxi has been registered (which is the basis for the calculation by the taximeter) is the maximum amount which the taxi driver can legally charge for the taxi ride. However, you are free to ask for a quote (demande de devis)/negotiate another amount for the journey with the taxi driver. If you do obtain a quote/negotiate an amount for the journey with the taxi driver, he/she is nonetheless legally obliged to turn on the taximeter – the reason for this is that if the final fare displayed on the meter (plus supplements) is lower than the fare which you were quoted/negotiated, you are only obliged to pay the lower amount and not the higher amount which you had previously agreed with the driver.
If you are dissatisfied with the service provided by the taxi driver, you should try to resolve any problems on the spot with him/her. If you are still dissatisfied, you can contact the taxi operator (unless the taxi driver is an independent driver). In Paris, you can contact the police which regulates taxis (Préfecture de police, Direction des transports et de la protection du public, Sous-direction des déplacements et de l’espace public, Bureau des taxis et transports publics, 36 rue des Morillons, 75015 PARIS, ☎ 01 55 76 20 05 (email@example.com, fax: 01 55 76 27 01), . ). Outside Paris, taxis are usually regulated by the préfecture in the departément where the taxi is registered. In some departéments, you can complain directly to the préfecture about a taxi under its jurisdiction. For a list of préfectures by departément, see . In other departéments, the prefect will have designated the consumer protection authority (Direction de la Protection des Populations) in the departément as the body responsible for receiving complaints about taxi drivers. For a list of the relevant Direction de la Protection des Populations, see . When contacting the police in Paris or préfecture/Direction de la Protection des Populations outside Paris, you should include the following details: licence plate number of the taxi, time of the journey.
The term ‘VTC’ (voiture de transport avec chauffeur) in France is the equivalent of a private hire taxi/minicab in English-speaking countries – you can only take a VTC if it has been pre-booked. (The term ‘taxi’ (see section above) in France is the equivalent of a public hire taxi/cab in English-speaking countries – you can take a taxi either by hailing one on the street, going to a taxi stand (station de taxi) or booking one through a taxi operator (central de radio taxi).)
Unlike taxis, by law a VTC can only charge a fare which is either a fixed price which has been agreed in advance or an amount calculated based on the time of the journey. A VTC is forbidden from charging a fare calculated based on the distance of the journey actually driven and having a taximeter installed. A VTC can only carry up to 9 passengers.
You can book a VTC through a number of operators:
- Allocab  (available in Paris, Lyon, Lille, Cannes, Nice, Montpellier, Toulouse, Marseille, Bordeaux, Toulon, Nantes and Rennes)
- Chauffeur-privé  (available in Paris and the French Riviera/Côte d’Azur)
- Drive  (available in Paris and a number of other cities)
- Le Cab  (operates a fleet of Peugeot 508 in Paris (with an internet-enabled iPad for passengers onboard))
- Marcel  (available in Paris only)
- Snapcar  (available in Paris only)
- Uber  (available in Paris, Bordeaux, Côte d’Azur, Lille and Lyon; note that all pickups are made on demand and it is not possible to make a booking in advance)
Make sure that the VTC which you have booked is legal by checking to see if there is a VTC vignette with the registration number of the company/operator both on the front and rear windows.
Elsewhere, intercity coaches can only be found in departmental/regional service. So check for the peculiarities of bus service in the region you are in.
Tickets for local service are usually affordable, i.e. in the region of Île De France generally cost €1.60 (10 cents more if purchased from the driver).
You can cruise down one of the French canals on a river boat to see the sites of the local countryside and moor by a local town/village to try the local produce and visit the cafes and bars. One of the most popular rivers being the Canal Du Midi located in the south of France in the departments of Hérault, Aude, and Haute-Garonne. Many boat charter companies offer this service.
See also: French phrasebook
L’anglais et les Français
French (français) is the official language of France, although there are regional variations in pronunciation and local words. For example, throughout France the word for yes, oui, said “we”, but you will often hear the slang form “ouais”, said “waay.” It’s similar to the English language usage of “Yeah” instead of “Yes”.
In Alsace and part of Lorraine, a dialect of German called “Alsatian”, which is almost incomprehensible to speakers of standard High German, is spoken. In the south, some still speak dialects of the Langue d’Oc (because the word for “yes” is oc): Languedocien, Limousin, Auvergnat, or Provençal. Langue d’Oc is a Romance language, a very close relative of Italian, Spanish, or Catalan. In the west part of Brittany, a few people, mainly old or scholars, speak Breton; this Celtic language is closer to Welsh than to French. In parts of Aquitaine, Basque is spoken, but not as much as on the Spanish side of the border. In Corsica a kind of Italian is spoken. In Provence, Provençal is most likely to be spoken, especially along the Riviera.
However, almost everyone speaks French and tourists are unlikely to ever come across regional languages, except in order to give a “folkloric” flair to things.
Hardly anybody understands imperial units such as gallons or Fahrenheit. Stick to metric units (after all, French invented this system!).
The French are generally attached to politeness (some might say excessively) and will react coolly to strangers that forget it. You might be surprised to see that you are greeted by other customers when you walk into a restaurant or shop. Return the courtesy and address your hellos/goodbyes to everyone when you enter or leave small shops and cafes. It is, for the French, very impolite to start a conversation with a stranger (even a shopkeeper or client) without at least a polite word like “bonjour”. For this reason, starting the conversation with at least a few basic French phrases, or some equivalent polite form in English, goes a long way to convince them to try and help you.
- “Excusez-moi Monsieur/Madame”: Excuse me (ex-COO-zay-mwah mih-SYOOR/muh-DAM)
- “S’il vous plaît Monsieur/Madame” : Please (SEEL-voo-PLAY)
- “Merci Monsieur/Madame” : Thank you (mare-SEE)
- “Au revoir Monsieur/Madame” : Good Bye (Ore-vwar)
Avoid “Salut” (Hi); it is reserved for friends and relatives, and to use it with people you are not acquainted with is considered quite impolite.
Some travel phrases:
- Où est l’hôtel? – Where is the hotel?
- Où sont les toilettes? – Where can I find a restroom?
- Où est la gare? Where is the train station
- Parlez-vous français? Do you speak French?
- Parlez-vous anglais? Do you speak English?
Note that French spoken with an hard English accent or an American accent can be very difficult for the average French person to understand. In such circumstances, it may be best to write down what you are trying to say. But tales of waiters refusing to serve tourists because their pronunciation doesn’t meet French standards are highly exaggerated. A good-faith effort will usually be appreciated, but don’t be offended if a waiter responds to your fractured French, or even fluent but accented, in English (If you are a fluent French speaker and the waiter speaks to you in English when you’d prefer to speak French, continue to respond in French and the waiter will usually switch back – this is a common occurrence in the more tourist-orientated areas, especially in Paris).
Please note that some parts of France (such as Paris) are at times overrun by tourists. The locals there may have some blasé feelings about helping for the umpteenth time foreign tourists who speak in an unintelligible language and ask for directions to the other side of the city. Be courteous and understanding.
As France is a very multicultural society, many African languages, Arabic, Chinese dialects, Vietnamese or Cambodian could be spoken. Spanish, Italian, Portuguese and even Romanian are comprehensible to a French speaker to a reasonably wide extent, as they are all mutually intelligible through most words and come from the same family tree, but you should stick to French unless you’re in a large city.
The standard sign language in France is French Sign Language, locally abbreviated LSF. Whenever an interpreter for the hearing-impaired is present at a public event, LSF will be used. Whether a user of a foreign sign language will be able to communicate in France depends on the user’s specific language. For example, users of American Sign Language (also used in Anglophone Canada), Irish Sign Language, and Quebec Sign Language may be able to communicate to some degree. These languages are derived from LSF to a significant extent, and share a good deal of vocabulary and syntax. Languages in the LSF family also have one-handed manual alphabets that differ slightly from language to language. On the other hand, users of British Sign Language, New Zealand Sign Language, and Auslan will have great difficulty. These languages differ significantly in vocabulary and syntax from LSF, and also use the same two-handed manual alphabet.
Finally, foreign TV programmes shown on local or national TV networks are dubbed into French. Similarly, the audio of news interviews where the interviewee gives a response in another language is superimposed with a French translation. For foreign films shown in a cinema however, audiences, particularly in larger cities, usually have an option to watch the film in its original language (with French subtitles) or whose audio is dubbed into French.
Thinking of France, you might imagine the iconic Eiffel Tower, the Arc de Triomphe or the famous smile of Mona Lisa. You might think of drinking coffee in the lively Paris cafés where great intellectuals lingered in past times, or of eating croissants in a local bistro of a sleepy but gorgeous village in the countryside. Probably, images of splendid châteaux will spring to your mind, of lavender fields or perhaps of vineyards as far as the eye can see. Or perhaps, you’d envisage the chic resorts of the Cote D’Azur. And you wouldn’t be wrong. However, they are only the tip of the iceberg when it comes to France’s many sights and attractions.
Paris. the “City of Light” and the capital of romance has been a travellers’ magnet for centuries and a real must-see. Of course, no visit would be complete without a glance at its world famous landmarks. The Eiffel Tower is hard to miss, especially when it is lit beautifully at night, but the Arc de Triomphe, Notre Dame and Sacré Coeur are both famous and stunning sights too. With no less than 3,800 national monuments in and around Paris, history is literally around every corner. Stroll through the city’s spacious green parks, with the Luxembourg Gardens as one of the favourites, and make sure to spend some time on the famous banks of the river Seine. Also, don’t miss the magnificent Palace of Versailles, the most grand reminder of the Ancient Regime located just 20km away from the capital.
Bordeaux is famous for its wine but is also a bustling city with lots of historic sights to discover. It is listed as a World Heritage Site for being “an outstanding urban and architectural ensemble”. Lyon, the country’s second largest city, is listed too, and boasts a beautiful old centre as well as a number of Roman ruins. Strasbourg, one of the EU headquarters, has a character of its own, with clear German influences. Montpellier is one of the best places in the south, with lots of monumental buildings and nice cafés. In the west there’s the beautiful historic city of Nantes, home to the Château des ducs de Bretagne and many other monuments. The Capitole de Toulouse is situated right at the heart that famous university city’s street plan. Last but not least, don’t overlook Arles, with its World Heritage Listed Roman and Romanesque Monuments.
And then there are the magnificent cities of the Côte d’Azur, once the place to be for the rich and famous but now equally popular with a general crowd. Its sandy beaches, beautiful bays, rocky cliffs and lovely towns has made it one of the main yachting and cruising areas in the world as well as popular destination for land-bound travellers. There’s bustling Nice, where some 4 million tourists a year enjoy the stony beaches and stroll over the Promenade des Anglais. Avignon with its splendid ramparts and Palais-des-Papes was once the seat of popes. Although Saint-Tropez gets overcrowded in summer, it’s a delightful place in any other season. The same goes for Cannes, where the jet-set of the film industry gathers each year for the famous Cannes Film Festival. From there, you can hop on a boat to the much more peaceful Îles de Lérins.
Much smaller in size but just as gorgeous (and popular) are the perched villages of Gourdon and Èze, which is located on a 427 meter high cliff, much like an “eagle’s nest”. Both offer some stunning panoramic views. From Èze, its a very short trip to the glitter and glamour of Monaco. For the world’s millionaires and aristocracy, the green peninsula of Saint-Jean-Cap-Ferrat is an old time favourite with the impressive Villa Ephrussi de Rothschild full of impressionist art as its main sight. A bit more inland but well-worth a visit are the towns of Grasse, famous for its perfumeries, and Biot, known for its glass blowers. The huge city and arts-hub Marseille is usually not considered part of the Cote D’Azur, but is very close. It has plenty of historic sights and nearby are the stunning Calanques, a series of miniature fjords it shares with Cassis.
Countryside & villages
You haven’t seen the best of France if you haven’t had at least a taste of its amazing countryside, dotted with wonderful medieval villages and castles. There are great examples in any part of the country, but some 156 have been identified as the most beautiful villages in France . The country’s landscapes vary from the snow-covered peaks of the Alps and the Pyrenees with their many winter sports resorts to lush river valleys, dense forests and huge stretches of farmland and vineyards. The Provence, backing a good part of the Côte d’Azur, is one of the most beloved regions. It has a typical Mediterranean atmosphere and is famous for its lavender fields and rosé wines. It’s also home to the stunning Verdon Gorge, one of the most beautiful gorges in Europe. The rolling riverine landscape of the Loire Valley is home to many great castles, of which Châteaux Amboise, Château de Villandry, Azay-le-Rideau, Chambord and Châteaux du Pin are some of the finest examples. The western region of Brittany reaches far into the Atlantic and boasts many megalith monuments such as those near Carnac. The beaches of Normandy, also on the Atlantic coast, are famed for the D-Day Allied invasion on 6 June 1944. Although the humbling Normandy American Cemetery and countless museums, memorials and war time remains keep memory of those dark days alive, the region is now a pleasant and popular destination. Its picturesque coast line includes both long stretches of beach and steep limestone cliffs, such as those near Étretat). The region is also home to the splendid and World Heritage listed Mont-Saint-Michel and its Bay. The lush hills of the Dordogne form another region famous for its castles, with over 1500 of them on its 9000km² area.
As the French have a real taste for art, the country has numerous art galleries and museums. Several of them are widely considered to be among the finest museums in the world of art, art-history, and culture. The grandeur and fame of the Musée du Louvre in Paris can hardly be matched by any other museum in the world. It boasts a fabulous collection of art from antiquity to the 19th century and is home of the Mona Lisa and many other renowned works. At just a 15 minute walk from there is the Musée d’Orsay, another world class museum that picks up roughly where the Louvre’s collections ends. It’s located in an old railway station and houses the national collection of art works from the 1848 to 1914 period. Its excellent collection includes some of the best French Impressionist, post-Impressionist and Art Nouveau works, including Degas’ ballerinas and Monet’s waterlillies. The Musée National d’Art Moderne in Centre Pompidou, still in France’s capital, is the largest museum for modern art in Europe. The Museum of Fine Arts in Lyon has an excellent collection varying from ancient Egypt antiquities to Modern art paintings and sculptures. In Lille you’ll find the Palais des Beaux-Arts de Lille, one of the country’s largest museums. Its varied collection is second in size after the Louvre and boasts anything from antiquities to modern art. Smaller but still outstanding are the collections of the Musée Fabre in Montpellier, Musée Toulouse-Lautrec in Albi and the Picasso Museum in Paris. Marseille has many galleries and its Musée Cantini has a good collection of modern art associated with Marseille as well as several works by Picasso. Fondation Maeght houses modern art too and is situated in Saint-Paul de Vence.
Parks & natural attractions
Disneyland Resort Paris is by far France’s most popular park, visited by families from all over Europe. The country’s national parks have quite some visitors too though, due to their splendid scenery and great opportunities for outdoor sports. Vanoise National Park is the oldest and one of the largest parks, named after the Vanoise massif. Its highest peak is the Grande Casse at 3,855 m. The impressive natural landscapes of Parc national des Pyrénées are right on the southern border of France and extend well into Spain, where they are part of the Parc National Ordesa y Monte Perdido The whole area is listed as UNESCO World Heritage. In the French part, the glacial cirques of Gavarnie, Estaubé and Troumouse are some of the best sights, as is the wall of Barroud. The again mountainous Cévennes National Park covers parts of the Languedoc-Roussillon (including te popular Ardèche), Midi-Pyrénées and the Rhône-Alpes regions. Its headquarters is in the castle of Florac, but there are towns all over the park. Donkey rides are available and the Cave formation of Aven Armand is one of the parks’ best sights.
Not yet under a protective status but highly popular is Mont Blanc, the highest peak in Europe and attractive for climbing, hiking and skiing. From the French side, it is mostly explored from Chamonix, a well known resort on the foot of the mountain.
- Go to the top of the Eiffel Tower in Paris
- Stroll grand Parisian Boulevards
- Climb Montmartre Hill in Paris
- See a managable amount of art in the Louvre, or see the art in the Orsay Museum, in a former train station
- See the modern architecture in the business district of La Defense
- See the Science Museum in Villette Park, and the other odd attractions assembled there
- Stroll an old train viaduct on the Promenade Plantee in Paris
- See the stunning, but crowded, Versailles Palace
- Cross the beach at low tide and then climb to the top of Mont Saint Michel
- Explore Chartres Cathedral
- See the quaintness of the Alsace
- Sunbathe on the beaches of the French Riviera
- Ride a bike along a section of Tour De France
Many of the French take their vacations in August. As a result, outside of touristic areas, many of the smaller stores (butcher shops, bakeries…) will be closed in parts of August. This also applies to many corporations as well as physicians. Obviously, in touristy areas, stores will tend to be open when the tourists come, especially July and August. In contrast, many attractions will be awfully crowded during those months, and during Easter week-end.
Some attractions, especially in rural areas, close or have reduced opening hours outside the touristic season.
Mountain areas tend to have two touristic seasons: in the winter, for skiing, snowshoeing and other snow-related activities, and in the summer for sightseeing and hiking.
France has the euro (€) as its sole currency along with 24 other countries that use this common European money. These 24 countries are: Austria, Belgium, Cyprus, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia and Spain (official euro members which are all European Union member states) as well as Andorra, Kosovo, Monaco, Montenegro, San Marino and the Vatican which use it without having a say in eurozone affairs and without being European Union members. Together, these countries have a population of more than 330 million.
One euro is divided into 100 cents. While each official euro member (as well as Monaco, San Marino and Vatican) issues its own coins with a unique obverse, the reverse, as well as all bank notes, look the same throughout the eurozone. Every coin is legal tender in any of the eurozone countries.
Some foreign currencies such as the US dollar and the British Pound are occasionally accepted, especially in touristic areas and in higher-end places, but one should not count on it; furthermore, the merchant may apply some unfavourable rate. In general, shops will refuse transactions in foreign currency.
It is compulsory, for the large majority of businesses, to post prices in windows. Hotels and restaurants must have their rates visible from outside (note, however, that many hotels propose lower prices than the posted ones if they feel they will have a hard time filling up their rooms; the posted price is only a maximum).
Almost all stores, restaurants and hotels take the CB French debit card, and its foreign affiliations, Visa and Mastercard. American Express tends to be accepted only in high-end shops. Check with your bank for applicable fees (typically, banks apply the wholesale inter-bank exchange rate, which is the best available, but may slap a proportional and/or a fixed fee). If ever the merchant requires a minimum amount before purchasing, then they will post it in writing at the till or the shop’s entrance.
French CB cards (and CB/Visa and CB/Mastercard cards) have a “smart chip” on them allowing PIN authentication of transactions. This system, initiated in France, has now evolved to an international standard and newer British cards are compatible. Some automatic retail machines (such as those vending tickets) may be compatible only with cards with the microchip. In addition, cashiers unaccustomed to foreign cards possibly do not know that foreign Visa or Mastercard cards have to be swiped and a signature obtained, while French customers systematically use PIN and don’t sign the transactions.
There is (practically) no way to get a cash advance from a credit card without a PIN in France.
Automatic teller machines (ATM) are by far the best way to get money in France. They all take CB, Visa, Mastercard, Cirrus and Plus and are plentiful throughout France. They may accept other kinds of card; check for the logos on the ATM and on your card (on the back, generally) if at least one matches. It is possible that some machines do not handle 6-digit PIN codes (only 4-digit ones), or that they do not offer the choice between different accounts (defaulting on the checking account). Check with your bank about applicable fees, which may vary greatly (typically, banks apply the wholesale inter-bank exchange rate, which is the best available, but may slap a proportional and/or a fixed fee; because of the fixed fee it is generally better to withdraw money in big chunks rather than €20 at a time). Also, check about applicable maximal withdrawal limits.
Traveller’s cheques are difficult to use — most merchants will not accept them, and exchanging them may involve finding a bank that accepts to exchange them and possibly paying a fee.
Note that the postal service doubles as a bank, so often post offices will have an ATM. As a result, even minor towns will have ATMs usable with foreign cards.
Exchange offices (bureaux de change) are now rarer with the advent of the Euro – they will in general only be found in towns with a significant foreign tourist presence, such as Paris. Some banks exchange money, often with high fees. The Bank of France no longer does foreign exchange.
Do’s Put money into your checking account, carry an ATM card with a Cirrus or Plus logo on it and a 4-digit pin that does not start with ‘0’ and withdraw cash from ATMs. Pay larger transactions (hotel, restaurants…) with Visa or Mastercard. Always carry some € cash for emergencies.
Don’t’s Carry foreign currency (USD, GBP…) or traveller’s cheques, and exchange them on the go, or expect them to be accepted by shops.
Inside city centres, you will find smaller stores, chain grocery stores (Casino) as well as, occasionally, department stores and small shopping malls. Residential areas will often have small supermarkets (Champion, Intermarché). Large supermarkets (hypermarchés such as Géant Casino or Carrefour) are mostly located on the outskirts of towns and are probably not useful unless you have a car.
Prices are indicated with all taxes (namely, the TVA, or value-added tax) included. It is possible for non-EU residents aged 16 or over spending less than 6 months in France to get a partial refund of TVA upon departure from the EU when shopping at certain stores that have a “tax-free shopping” sticker (in French, ‘la détaxe’); inquire within. A refund of TVA is only possible in you spend over €175 (inclusive of TVA) from a single shop in one day. TVA is 20.0% (as of January 2014) on most merchandise, but 10.0% on some things such as books, restaurant meals, and public transport and 5.0% on food purchased from grocery stores (except for sweets and candies!). Alcoholic beverages are always taxed at 20%, regardless of where they’re purchased. For more information, see this French Customs webpage.
Always keep your receipt after purchasing an item in a shop, because if it turns out to be defective, you have the right to return it and get a refund/exchange.
Starting from 1 January 2015, shops in France will only be allowed to run sales for a maximum of 10 weeks per year (in 2015, the legal winter sales period runs between Wednesday 7 January and Tuesday 17 February and the summer sales period between Wednesday 24 June and Tuesday 4 August – outside these two periods, sales are forbidden, but shops are allowed to sell their products at reduced prices). For more information, see this French Government webpage.
Although it is not common to bargain/haggle on prices, especially in bigger/chain stores, more and more French people are starting to negotiate prices and ask for discounts when considering making a purchase, particularly in markets and in smaller, independent shops (in 2008, over half of French people admitted in a survey to negotiating prices). You are more likely to be successful if you smile when you bargain, purchase several products, and compare the price with that offered in other shops.
If you are still satisfied with the product which you purchased or the service you received in a shop, you should first try to resolve the problem with the shop staff/manager. If you are still dissatisfied, you can contact the responsible consumer protection authority if the shop has violated the law (e.g. it sold you a product at a higher price to the one advertised, it refused to refund/exchange a defective product, it gave you an inferior level of service on the basis of your race/sex/religion/beliefs/disability/family situation). In Paris, the relevant authority is the Direction départementale de la protection des populations (DDPP) (8 rue Froissart, 75153 PARIS Cedex 03, ☎ 01 40 27 16 00 (firstname.lastname@example.org). ). Outside Paris, you can find a list of consumer protection authorities by département at .
With its international reputation for fine dining, few people would be surprised to hear that French cuisine can certainly be very good. Unfortunately, it can also be quite disappointing; many restaurants serve very ordinary fare, and some in touristy areas are rip-offs. Finding the right restaurant is therefore very important – try asking locals, hotel staff or even browsing restaurant guides for recommendations as simply walking in off the street can be a hit and miss affair.
There are many places to try French food in France, from three-star Michelin restaurants to French “brasseries” or “bistros” that you can find at almost every corner, especially in big cities. These usually offer a relatively consistent and virtually standardised menu of relatively inexpensive cuisine. To obtain a greater variety of dishes, a larger outlay of money is often necessary. In general, one should try to eat where the locals do for the best chance of a memorable meal. Most small cities or even villages have local restaurants which are sometimes listed in the most reliable guides. There are also specific local restaurants, like “bouchons lyonnais” in Lyon, “crêperies” in Brittany (or in the Montparnasse area of Paris), etc.
Chinese, Vietnamese, even Thai eateries are readily available in Paris, either as regular restaurants or “traiteurs” (fast-food). They are not so common, and are more expensive, in smaller French cities. Many places have “Italian” restaurants though these are often little more than unimaginative pizza and pasta parlors. You will also find North African (Moroccan, Algerian, Tunisian) as well as Greek and Lebanese food. The ubiquitous hamburger eateries (US original or their French copies) are also available; note that McDonalds is more upmarket in France than in the US.
In France, taxes (10 per cent of the total in restaurants) and service (usually 15 per cent) are always included in the bill (the menu/bill will state ‘prix service compris’), so anything patrons add to the bill amount is an “extra-tip” (‘pourboire’). French people usually leave one or two coins if they are happy with the service.
Fixed price menus seldom include beverages (if drinks are included, the menu will state ‘boisson comprise’). If you want water, waiters will often try to sell you still mineral water (Évian, Thonon) or sparkling water (Badoit, Perrier), at a premium; ask for a carafe d’eau (bottle of tap water), which is safe to drink (and, by law, must be provided free of charge when you order food at a restaurant). Water never comes with ice in it unless so requested (and water with ice may not be available).
As in other countries, restaurants tend to make a large profit off beverages. Expect wine to cost much more than it would in a supermarket. Some restaurants allow you to bring your own bottle of wine to drink with a corkage/BYOB fee (droit de bouchon).
You can order either from a fixed price menu (prix fixe) or à la carte. Many restaurants/eateries also offer a cheaper lunchtime fixed price menu (menu du midi or menu du jour).
A typical fixed price menu will comprise:
- appetizer, called entrées or hors d’œuvres
- main dish, called plat
- dessert (dessert) or cheese (fromage)
Sometimes, restaurants offer the option to take only two of the three courses, at a reduced price.
When you order food at a restaurant, by law the price includes bread (‘du pain’). Feel free to ask for more bread if you want.
If you order a steak/piece of meat (such as liver), you may be asked how you want it cooked (‘Quelle cuisson?’):
- very rare/blue rare (bleu)
- rare (saignant)
- medium (à point)
- well done (bien cuit)
- very well done (très bien cuit)
Coffee is always served as a final step (though it may be followed by liquors). A request for coffee during the meal will be considered strange.
Not all restaurants are open for lunch and dinner, nor are they open all year around. It is therefore advisable to check carefully the opening times and days. A restaurant open for lunch will usually start service at noon and accept patrons until 13:30. Dinner begins at around 19:30 and patrons are accepted until 21:30. Restaurants with longer service hours are usually found only in the larger cities and in the downtown area. Finding a restaurant open on Saturday and especially Sunday can be a challenge unless you stay close to the tourist areas.
In a reasonable number of restaurants, especially outside tourist areas, booking a table is compulsory and people may be turned away without one, even if the restaurant is clearly not filled to capacity. For this reason, it can be worthwhile to research potential eateries in advance and make the necessary reservations to avoid disappointment, especially if the restaurant you’re considering is specially advised in guide books.
It is illegal for a restaurant to turn you away unless there is an objectively justifiable and legitimate reason (for example, the restaurant is about to close, or you are clearly inebriated). The restaurant must not turn you away simply because you have children with you, or because you are alone/in a small group and the only table left can sit more people. The restaurant is permitted to turn you away if you have a pet animal with you (unless it is a guide dog). If the restaurant turns you away without a legitimate reason, the restaurateur will be liable for a minimum fine of €1500. If the restaurant turns you away based on your race, family situation (e.g. you have brought your children with you), disability, religion and/or beliefs/opinions, the restaurateur will be liable for a fine of €30000 and a 2 year prison sentence. If you are the victim of illegal treatment by a restaurant, you should report the incident to the responsible consumer protection authority (see below).
If you are a patron at a restaurant, by law the restaurant cannot charge you to use the toilet.
A lunch or dinner for two on the “menu” including wine and coffee will cost you (as of 2004) €70 to €100 in a listed restaurant in Paris. The same with beer in a local “bistro” or a “crêperie” around €50. A lunch or dinner for one person in a decent Chinese restaurant in Paris can cost as little as €8 if one looks carefully.
Outside of Paris and the main cities, prices are not always lower but the menu will include a fourth course, usually cheese. As everywhere beware of the tourist traps which are numerous around the heavy travelled spots and may offer a nice view but not much to remember in your plate.
If you are dissatisfied with the food and/or service you receive at a restaurant, you should speak to the waiter/manager. By law, the restaurant is obliged to provide a new plate of food if the one which has been served to you is not fresh, sufficiently hot, or inconsistent with the menu description. (However, if the plate served is merely not to your taste, the restaurant is not legally obliged to provide a new plate of food, and you are still obliged to pay for what you have ordered even if you do not consume it.) If you are still dissatisfied with the food/service, you can complain to the responsible consumer protection authority. In Paris, the relevant authority is the Direction départementale de la protection des populations (DDPP) (8 rue Froissart, 75153 PARIS Cedex 03, ☎ 01 40 27 16 00 (email@example.com). ). Outside Paris, you can find a list of consumer protection authorities by département at . If, following your meal at a restaurant, you become unwell and suspect that it was because of the poor hygiene conditions at the restaurant, you should alert the relevant health protection authorities as soon as possible: in Paris, the consumer protection authority (DDPP) also acts as the regulator of hygiene conditions at restaurants, but outside Paris, it is the Direction régionale de l’Alimentation, de l’Agriculture et de la Forêt (DRAAF) which is responsible for monitoring hygiene conditions at restaurants (contact details by region can be found at ).
All white bread variants keep for only a short time and must be eaten the same day. Hence bakers bake at least twice a day.
- The famous baguette: a long, thin loaf
- Baguette de tradition française: made from wheat flour, water, yeast and salt (not frozen dough), and may also contain broad bean flour (max 2%), soya flour (max 0.5%) and/or wheat malt flour (max 0.3%); by law, it must be prepared and baked in the same place where it is sold (usually sold for €1 to €1.20) – arguably the best type of baguette
- Variants of the baguette : la ficelle (even thinner), la flûte
- Pain de campagne or Pain complet: made from whole grain which keeps relatively well.
- Boule: round loaf
Pastries are a large part of French cooking. Hotel breakfasts tend to be light, consisting of tartines (pieces of bread with butter or jam) or the famous croissants and pains au chocolat, not dissimilar to a chocolate filled croissant (but square rather than crescent shaped).
Pastries can be found in a pâtisserie but also in most boulangeries.
Every French region has dishes all its own. These dishes follow the resources (game, fish, agriculture, etc) of the region, the vegetables (cabbage, turnip, endives, etc) which they grow there. Here is a small list of regional dishes which you can find easily in France. Generally each region has a unique and widespread dish (usually because it was poor people’s food):
- Cassoulet (in south west) : Beans, duck, pork & sausages
- Choucroute, or sauerkraut (in Alsace) : stripped fermented cabbage + pork
- Flammekueche (Alsace) : thin-crust pizza with cheese, crème fraîche, onions and bacon
- Baeckeoffe (Alsace) : sliced potatoes, sliced onions, cubed mutton, beef and pork stew
- Quiche Lorraine (Lorraine) : pie with custard, bacon and cheese
- Fondue Savoyarde (central Alps) : Melted/hot cheese with alcohol
- Fondue Bourguignonne (in Burgundy) : Pieces of beef (in boiled oil), usually served with a selection of various sauces.
- Raclette (central Alps) : melted cheese & potatoes/meat
- Pot-au-feu : boiled beef with vegetables
- Tournedos Rossini : beef tenderloin pan-fried in butter, topped with a slice of pan-fried foie gras, garnished with slices of black truffle and finished in a rich Madeira sauce
- Boeuf Bourguignon (Burgundy) : slow cooked beef with gravy
- Navarin d’agneau : lamb version of boeuf bourguignon
- Coq au vin : chicken stew with wine, lardons and mushrooms
- Gratin dauphinois (Rhone-Alpes) : oven roasted slices of potatoes
- Aligot (Auvergne) : melted cheese mixed with a puree of potatoes
- Bouillabaisse (fish + saffron) (Marseille and French Riviera) : Don’t be fooled. A real bouillabaisse is a really expensive dish due to the amount of fresh fish it requires. Be prepared to pay at least €30/persons. If you find restaurants claiming serving bouillabaisse for something like €15/persons, you’ll get a very poor quality.
- Soupe de poisson à la rouille (Marseille and French Riviera) : tomato and saffron fish soup, served with ‘rouille’ (saffron mayonnaise)
- Pissaladière (French Riviera) : pizza with onion, olives and anchovies
- Soupe au pistou (French Riviera) : soup with pesto
- Ratatouille (Provence) : vegetable stew (tomatoes, onion, courgettes, aubergines, peppers)
- Gigot D’Agneau Pleureur (Provence) : leg of lamb cooked slowly on top of potatoes
- Tartiflette (Savoie) Reblochon cheese, potatoes and pork or bacon.
- Confit de Canard (Landes) : Duck Confit, consists of legs and wings bathing in grease. That grease is actually very healthy and, with red wine, is one of the identified sources of the so-called “French Paradox” (eat richly, live long).
- Foie Gras (Landes) : The liver of a duck or goose. Although usually quite expensive, foie gras can be found in supermarkets for a lower price (because of their purchasing power) around the holiday season. It is the time of year when most of foie gras is consumed in France. It goes very well with Champagne.
- Magret de canard : Pan-fried duck breast
- Confit de canard : Duck leg which is cured in salt and then cooked in its own fat
- Garbure (Aquitaine) : Soup/stew of ham and cabbage
- Quenelle de brochet (Lyon) : Pike fish combined with breadcrumbs and a light egg binding, served in an oval shape
- Piperade (Basque country) : Stew made of tomatoes, onions and peppers with some eggs on top
- Poulet basquaise (Basque country) : Stew made of chicken, tomatoes, onions and peppers
- Accras de morue (Guadeloupe and Martinique) : deep-fried balls of cod
Cooking and drinking is a notable part of the French culture, take time to eat and discover new dishes…
Contrary to stereotype, snails and frog legs are quite infrequent foods in France, with many French people enjoying neither, or sometimes never having even tasted them. Quality restaurants sometimes have them on their menu: if you’re curious about trying new foods, go ahead.
- Frogs’ legs have a very fine and delicate taste with flesh that is not unlike chicken. They are often served in a garlic dressing and are no weirder to eat than, say, crab.
- Most of the taste of Bourgogne snails (escargots de bourgogne) comes from the generous amount of butter, garlic and parsley in which they are cooked. They have a very particular spongy-leathery texture that is the characteristic that is liked by people who like snails. Catalan style snails (“cargols”) are made a completely different way, and taste much weirder.
Let us also cite:
- Rillettes sarthoises also known as Rillettes du Mans. A sort of potted meat, made from finely shredded and spiced pork. A delicious speciality of the Sarthe area in the north of the Pays de la Loire and not to be confused with rillettes from other areas, which are more like a rough pate.
- Beef bone marrow (os à moelle). Generally served in small quantities, with a large side. So go ahead: If you don’t like it, you’ll have something else to eat in your plate.
- Veal sweetbread (ris de Veau), is a very fine (and generally expensive) delicacy, often served with morels, or in more elaborates dishes like “bouchees a la reine”.
- Beef bowels (tripes) is served either “A la mode de Caen” (with a white wine sauce, named after the town in Normandy) or “A la catalane” (with a slightly spiced tomato sauce)
- Blood sausage (boudin noir) often served with potatoes and apples
- Andouillettes are sausages made from tripe, a speciality of Lyon
- Tricandilles are seasoned and grilled pork tripe from the Bordeaux region
- Beef tongue (langue de bœuf) and beef nose(museau) and Veal head (tête de veau) are generally eaten cold (but thoroughly cooked!) as an appetizer.
- Canard à la presse (pressed duck) the duck is asphyxiated to retain the blood, the meat is then roasted and the carcass is put through a press to extract the blood and juices. The extract is thickened and flavoured with butter, cognac and duck liver, and the sauce is then served on pan-fried duck breast.
- Lamprey à la Bordelaise lamprey fish cooked in a stew with leeks, red wine, onions and ham
- Oysters (Huîtres) are most commonly served raw in a half shell. They are often graded by size, No1 being the largest (and most expensive).
- Oursins (sea urchins) For those who like concentrated iodine.
- Steak tartare a big patty of ground beef cured in acid as opposed to cooked, frequently served with a raw egg. Good steak tartare will be prepared to order at your table. A similar dish is boeuf carpaccio, which is thin slices or strips of raw steak drizzled with olive oil and herbs.
- Cervelle (pronounced ser-VELL), lamb brain.
France is certainly THE country of cheese, with nearly 400 different kinds. Indeed, former president General Charles De Gaulle was quoted as saying “How can you govern a country which has 365 varieties of cheese?”.
Here is a far from exhaustive list of what one can find:
|Bleu des Causses||Livarot||Roquefort|
|Bleu du Vercors||Morbier||Saint Nectaire|
|Brie de Meaux||Munster||Sainte Maure de Touraine|
|Brie de Melun||Murol||Selles-sur-Cher|
|Camembert||Ossau-Iraty||Sainte Maure de Touraine|
|Cantal||Pelardon||Tomme de chèvre|
|Chaource||Pérail||Tomme des Cévennes|
Vegetarianism is not as uncommon as it used to be, especially in larger cities. Still, very few restaurants offer vegetarian menus, thus if you ask for something vegetarian the only things they may have available are salad and vegetable side dishes.
There may still be confusions between vegetarianism and pesce/pollotarianism. Vegetarian/organic food restaurants are starting to appear. However, “traditional” French restaurants may not have anything vegetarian on the menu, so you may have to pick something “à la carte”, which is usually more expensive.
Veganism is still very uncommon and it may be difficult to find vegan eateries.
Breakfast in France isn’t the most important meal of the day and is usually very light. The most typical breakfast consists of a coffee and a croissant or some other “viennoiserie”, but since it implies going to the baker’s store early in the morning to buy fresh croissant, it’s typically reserved for somewhat special occasions. On normal days most people have a beverage (coffee, tea, hot chocolate, orange juice) and either toasts (“tartines” made of baguette or toast bread with butter and jam/honey/Nutella) that can be dipped in the hot beverage, or cereals with milk. People who eat healthy may go for fruits and yoghurt. As a general rule, the french breakfast is mostly sweet, but everything changes and you can have salty breakfasts everywhere today.
Champagne, Burgundy, Bordeaux, Rhone, the Loire Valley… France is the home of wine.
Beer (lager) is also extremely popular, in particular in northern France, where “Biere de Garde” can be found.
The alcohol purchase age was recently raised to 18 for all drinks, but this is not always strictly enforced; however, laws against drunk driving are strictly enforced, with stiff penalties.
Wine and liquors may be purchased from supermarkets, or from specialized stores such as the Nicolas chain. Nicolas offers good advice on what to buy (specify the kind of wine and the price range you desire). In general, only French wines are available unless a foreign wine is a “speciality” with no equivalent in France (such as port), and they are classified by region of origin, not by grape.
Prices of food and beverages will vary according to whether they’re served to you at the bar or sitting at a table – the same cup of espresso might cost €0.50 more if served at a table than at the bar, and €0.50 more again if served out on the terrace. Really, you’re not paying so much for the beverage as for the table spot. Do consider the bar, though – while you will have to stand, café bars are often where a great deal of public discourse and interaction happens. In any event, cafés are required by law to post their prices somewhere in the establishment, usually either in the window or on the wall by the bar. Note also that cafés in touristy areas, especially in Paris, tend to serve very expensive food of rather average quality. Unless you are dying of hunger or thirst, avoid the places that have menus in multiple languages or are near heavily-trafficked attractions. Instead, consider buying snacks and beverages from a grocery store and enjoying them in a nearby park.
There are a couple of mixed drinks which seem to be more or less unique to France, and nearby francophone countries.
- Panaché is a mix of beer and lemonade, basically a beer shandy. (Same as “Radler” in Central Europe.)
- Monaco is a Panaché with some grenadine syrup added.
- Kir is a pleasant aperitif of white wine (in theory, Bourgogne Aligoté) or, less frequently, of champagne (then named kir royal and about twice the price of regular kir) and cassis (blackcurrant liqueur), or peche (peach), or mûre (blackberry).
- Pastis is an anise-based (licorice-flavoured) spirit, similar in taste to Sambuca or Ouzo, that is served with a few lumps of sugar and a small pitcher of cold water to dilute the liquor. It is traditionally enjoyed on very hot days, and as such is more popular in the south of the country but available more or less everywhere.
There is a variety of bottled water, including:
- Évian, Thonon, Contrex, Volvic: mineral water
- Perrier: fizzy water
- Badoit: slightly fizzy and salty water.
- Le Guilly, Le Guily, 56300, France, . Self catering accommodation in Brittany with wheelchair access. edit
Short term rentals
Travellers should definitely consider short term villa/apartment/studio rentals as an alternative to other accommodations options. Short term can be as few as several days up to months at a stretch. Summer rentals are usually from Saturday to Saturday only (July & August). This type accommodation belongs to a private party, and can range from basic to luxurious. A particular advantage, aside from competitive prices, is that the accommodations come with fully fitted kitchens.
Hundreds of agencies offer accommodation for short term rentals on behalf of the owner, and can guide you into finding the best property, at the best price in the most suitable location for you. An internet search for the location and type of property you’re looking for will usually return the names of several listing sites, each of which may have hundreds or thousands of properties for you to choose from. There are plenty of sites in both English and French, and the rental properties may be owned by people of any nationality.
France is a diverse and colourful country, and you’ll find everything from stunning log chalets in the Alps, Chateaux in the countryside and beach front villas on the Riviera…plus everything in between!
Hotels come in 5 categories from 1 to 5 stars. This is the official rating given by the Ministry of Tourism, and it is posted at the entrance on a blue shield. Stars are awarded according to objective yet somewhat outdated administrative criteria (area of the reception hall, percentage of rooms with en suite bathroom…).
Rates vary according to accommodation, location and sometimes high or low season or special events.
As of 2004, the rate for a *** hotel listed in a reliable guidebook falls between €70 (cheap) and €110 (expensive) for a double without breakfast.
All hotels, by law, must have their rates posted outside (or visible from outside). Note that these are maximal rates: a hotel can always propose a lower rate in order to fill up its rooms. Bargaining is not the norm but you can always ask for a discount.
Hotels located in city centres or near train stations are often very small (15-30 rooms) which means that you should book ahead. Many newer hotels, business oriented, are found in the outskirts of cities and are sometimes larger structures (100 rooms or more); they may not be easy to reach with public transportation. The newer hotels are often part of national or international chains and have high standards. Many older hotels are now part of chains and provide standardized service but they retain their own atmosphere.
When visiting Paris, it is essential to stay in the city; there are cheaper tourism hotels in the suburbs, but these cater to groups in motor coaches; they will be hard to reach by public transportation.
Along the highways, at the entrance of cities, you find US-like motels ; they are very often reachable only by car. Some motels (e.g. Formule 1) have minimal service, if you come in late you find an ATM-like machine, using credit cards, which will deliver a code in order to reach your assigned room.
B & Bs and Gîtes
Throughout France, mainly in rural areas but also in towns and cities, you can find B&Bs and gîtes.
B&B’s are known in French as “Chambres d’hôtes” and are generally available on a nightly basis. By law, breakfast MUST be included in the advertised price for a “chambre d’hôte”. Bear this in mind when comparing prices with hotels, where breakfast is NOT included in the room price.
Gites or gites ruraux are holiday cottages, and generally rented out as a complete accommodation unit including a kitchen, mostly on a weekly basis. There are very few near or in the cities. Finding them requires buying a guide or, for greater choice, using the internet, as you will not find a lot of signposts on the road.
Traditionally, gites provided basic good value accommodation, typically adjacent to the owners household or in a nearby outbuilding. More recently the term has been extended, and can now be used to describe most country-based self-catering accommodation in France. Hence it includes accommodation as varied as small cottages villas with private swimming pools.
During peak summer months the best self-catering gites require booking several months in advance.
There are thousands of B&Bs and gites in France rented out by foreign owners, particularly British and Dutch, and these tend to be listed, sometimes exclusively, with English-language or international organisations and websites that can be found by keying the words “chambres d’hotes”, “gites” or “gites de france” into any of the major search engines.
There is a large number of organisations and websites offering “gites”. Literally the French word gite just means a place to spend the night; however it now largely used to describe rental cottages or self-catering holiday homes, usually in rural parts of France.
Gîtes de France
A France-wide cooperative organisation, Gites de France regroups on a voluntary basis more than 50,000 rural accommodations and was the first in France to offer a consistent rating system with comprehensive descriptions.
Despite the name, Gites de France offers B&B as well as holiday rental (gite) accommodation.
The “Gites de France” rating system uses wheat stalks called Epis (equivalent to stars), based on amenities rather than quality – though generally the two go together.
Through its website, bookings can be done directly with owners or through the local Gîtes de France booking agency (no extra fee for the traveler). Although an English language version is available for many of the website pages, for some departments the pages giving details of an individual gite are only in French.
There is no particular advantage in using Gites de France rather than one of the other online gites sites, or booking directly with a gite. The procedure is pretty standard for all gite booking sites, whether French or foreign – with the advantage that absolutely all the booking process can be done in English if you use an English-language portal, which is not always the case with Gites de France.
After making a gite booking you will receive, by post, a contract to sign (gites only). Sign and return one copy. When signing write the words “Read and approved”, and the name of your home town, before signing and dating the contract. You will normally be asked to pay a deposit of a quarter to a third of the booking fee. The rest will be required one month before the start of your holiday. When you arrive at the gite a security deposit, specified in the contact, should be given to the owner in cash. This will be returned at the end of your stay, less any fuel charges and breakages.
Another great resource for booking Gites and Villas in France is Holiday France Direct, It enables you to deal directly with the property owners and offers customers discounted ferry travel with Brittany Ferries. www.holidayfrancedirect.co.uk
Another possibility is gîtes d’étape. These are more like overnight stays for hikers, like a mountain hut. They are mostly cheaper than the Gîtes de France but also much more basic.
Camping is very common in France. Most campsite are a little way out of the city centre and virtually all cater not just for tents but for Camper Vans/Caravans also. While all campsites have the basic facilities of Shower/toilet blocks, larger sites tend to offer a range of additional facilities such as bars and restaurants, self-service laundries, swimming pools or bicycle hire.
All campsites except for very small “farm camping” establishments must be registered with the authorities, and are officially graded using a system of stars.
In coastal areas, three-star and four-star campgrounds must generally be booked in advance during the months of July and August, and many people book from one year to the next. In rural areas, outside of popular tourist spots, it is usually possible to show up unannounced, and find a place; this is particularly true with the municipal campsites that can be found in most small towns; though even then it may be advisable to ring up or email in advance to make sure. There are always exceptions.
In France it’s forbidden to camp:
- in woods, natural, regional and national parks
- on public roads and streets
- on the seaside
- less than 200m from watering place used for human consumption
- on natural protected sites
- less than 500m from a protected monument
- everywhere where it’s forbidden by local laws
- on private properties without the owner’s consent.
France, of course, is the best place to acquire, maintain and develop your French. A number of institutions offer a variety of courses for travellers.
If you are by law required to obtain a visa or other type of authorisation to work and fail to do so, you risk possible arrest, prosecution, expulsion and prohibition from reentering France and the Schengen area.
Citizens of EU and EEA countries (save from some Eastern European countries, for a temporary period) and Switzerland can work in France without having to secure a work permit. Most non-EU citizens will need a work permit – however, some non-EU citizens (such as Canadians, New Zealanders, etc) do not require a visa or work permit to work during their 90 day visa-free period of stay in France (see the ‘Get in’ section above for more information).
If you are an EU citizen or from an EEA country and want to earn money to continue travelling, Interim agencies (e.g. Adecco, Manpower) are a good source of temporary jobs. You can also consider working in bars, restaurants, and/or nightclubs (they are often looking for English-speaking workers, particularly those restaurants in tourist areas – fast-food restaurants such as McDonald’s and Quick are also always looking for people).
A lot of “student jobs”, if you happen to be in a big city, are also available for younger travelers, and foreigners are often very welcome. Such jobs include, for example, giving private English lessons, taking care of young children or many other things…check out the university buildings, they often have a lot of advertisements. An easy way to find job offers in France is to use the Jobbydoo.fr, search engine.
Don’t forget that being an English speaker is a big advantage when you’re looking for a job – French employers really have a problem finding English-speaking workers. Do note, however, that it will be much easier for you if you know a bit of French, for the same reason (your colleagues are not likely to speak English). However, don’t overestimate your chances of finding work; there are a lot more people looking for jobs than there are jobs – except those unattractive jobs that no-one wants to do.
The French work market tends to operate through personal contacts – if you know someone that works somewhere, you can probably figure out quite an easy way to work at that place too. It always helps to know people living in the area you wish to work.
Crime-related emergencies can be reported to the toll-free number 17. Law enforcement forces are the National Police (Police Nationale) in urban area and the Gendarmerie in rural area, though for limited issues such as parking and traffic offenses some towns and villages also have a municipal police.
France is a very low-crime area, and is one of the safest countries in the world, but large cities are plagued with the usual woes. Violent crime against tourists or strangers is very rare, but there is pickpocketing and purse-snatching.
The inner city areas and a few select suburbs are usually safe at all hours. In large cities, especially Paris, there are a few areas which are better to avoid. Parts of the suburban are sometimes grounds for youth gang violent activities and drug dealing; however these are almost always far from touristic points and you should have no reason to visit them. Common sense applies: it is very easy to spot derelict areas.
The subject of crime in the poorer suburbs is very touchy as it may easily have racist overtones, since many people associate it with working-class youth of North African origin. You should probably not express any opinion on the issue.
Usual caution apply for tourists flocking around sights as they may become targets for pickpockets. A usual trick is to ask tourists to sign fake petitions and give some money, which is a way to put pressure on the victim. Stay away from people requesting money without any organization badge.
While it is not compulsory for French citizens to carry identification, they usually do so. Foreigners should carry some kind of official identity document. Although random checks are not the norm you may be asked for an ID in some kinds of situations, for example if you cannot show a valid ticket when using public transportation; not having one in such cases will result in you being taken to a police station for further checks. Even if you feel that law enforcement officers have no right to check your identity (they can do so only in certain circumstances), it is a bad idea to enter a legal discussion with them; it is better to put up with it and show ID. Again, the subject is touchy as the police have often been accused of targeting people according to criteria of ethnicity (e.g. délit de sale gueule = literally “crime of a dirty face” but perhaps equivalent to the American “driving while black.”)
Due to the terrorist factor, police, with the help of military units, are patrolling monuments, the Paris subway, train stations and airports. Depending on the status of the “Vigipirate” plan (anti terrorist units) it is not uncommon to see armed patrols in those areas. The presence of police is of help for tourists, as it also deters pickpockets and the like. However, suspicious behaviour, public disturbances etc., may result in policemen asking to see an ID.
In France, failing to offer assistance to ‘a person in danger’ is illegal. This means that if you fail to stop upon witnessing a motor accident, fail to report such an accident to emergency services, or ignore appeals for help or urgent assistance, you may be charged. Penalties include suspended prison sentence and fines. The law does not apply in situations where to answer an appeal for help might endanger your life or the lives of others.
Carrying or using narcotic substances, from marijuana to hard drugs, is illegal whatever the quantity. The penalty can be severe especially if you are suspected of dealing. Trains and cars coming from countries which have a more lenient attitude (like the Netherlands) are especially targeted. Police have often been known to stop entire coaches and search every passenger and their bags thouroughly just because they’re coming from Amsterdam.
France has a liberal policy with respect to alcohol; there are usually no ID checks for purchasing alcohol (unless you look much younger than 18). However, causing problems due to public drunkenness is a misdemeanor and may result in a night in a police station. Drunk driving is a severe offense and may result in heavy fines and jail sentences.
A little etiquette note: while it is common to drink beer straight from the bottle at informal meetings, doing the same with wine is normally only done by tramps (clochards).
Tap water (Eau du robinet) is drinkable, except in rare cases such as rural rest areas and sinks in train bathrooms, in which case it will be clearly signposted as Eau non potable. Eau potable is potable water. (You may, however, not like the taste which may be chlorinated, bottled water is common.)
The health care in France is of a very high standard.
Pharmacies in France are denoted by a green cross, usually in neon. They sell medicines, contraceptives, and often beauty and related products (though these can be very expensive). Medicines must be ordered from the counter, even non-prescription medicines. The pharmacist is able to help you about various medicines and propose you generic drugs.
Since drug brand names vary across countries even though the effective ingredients stay the same, it is better to carry prescriptions using the international nomenclature in addition to the commercial brand name. Prescription drugs, including oral contraceptives (aka “the pill”), will only be delivered if a doctor’s prescription is shown.
In addition, supermarkets sell condoms (préservatifs) and also often personal lubricant, bandages, disinfectant and other minor medical item. Condom machines are often found in bar toilets, etc.
Medical treatment can be obtained from self-employed physicians, clinics and hospitals. Most general practitioners, specialists (e.g. gynecologists), and dentists are self-employed; look for signs saying Docteur (médecine générale is general practitioner). The normal price for a consultation with a general practitioner is €23, though some physicians charge more (this is the full price and not a co-payment). Physicians may also do home calls, but these are more expensive.
Residents of the European Union are covered by the French social security system, which will reimburse or directly pay for 70% of health expenses (30% co-payment) in general, though many physicians and surgeons apply surcharges. Other travellers are not covered and will be billed the full price, even if at a public hospital; non-EU travellers should have travel insurance covering medical costs.
Hospitals will have an emergency room signposted Urgences.
The following numbers are toll-free:
- 15 Medical emergencies
- 17 Law enforcement emergencies (for e.g. reporting a crime)
- 18 Firefighters
- 112 European standard emergency numbers.
Operators at these numbers can transfer requests to other services if needed (e.g. some medical emergencies may be answered by firefighter groups).
Smoking is prohibited by law in all enclosed spaces accessible to the public (this includes train and subway cars, train and subway station enclosures, workplaces, restaurants and cafés) unless in areas specifically designated for smoking, and there are few of these. There was an exception for restaurants and cafés, but since the 1st January 2008, the smoking ban law is also enforced there. You may face a fine of €68 if you are found smoking in these places.
Smoking is banned in métro and trains, as well as enclosed stations. Subway and train conductors do enforce the law and will fine you for smoking in non-designated places; if you encounter problems with a smoker in train, you may go find the conductor.
As hotels are not considered as public places, some offer smoking vs non-smoking rooms.
Only people over the age 18 may purchase tobacco products. Shopkeepers may request a photo ID.
On the Métro
The Métro subway system is a great way to get around Paris (or Lyon, Marseille, et al.), which is readily apparent in the throngs of people that use it to go to work, school, and the like. If you do not ride the train at home, or if you come from a place that doesn’t have a subway system, there are certain points of etiquette that you may not be aware of. When boarding at the station, let those exiting the train step off onto the platform before boarding, and once aboard move to the centre of the car. If you have luggage, move it as far out of the path of others as possible (on the RER B to Charles de Gaulle airport, use the luggage racks above the seats instead). Certain stations have moving sidewalks to cover the distances between platforms – walk on the left and stand on the right! Finally, do note that the doors on French subway cars don’t generally open automatically once the train has stopped at the station; rather, most cars have a small button or lever on the doors that opens them. If you should happen to be standing near the door in a crowded car you might hear someone behind you say “la porte, s’il vous plait,” which means that person would like to get off the train and is asking you to open the door for him/her. Pop the door open and step aside (or down onto the platform) while that person exits the train – the driver will wait for you to get back on.
It is considered very rude to be loud in a crowded place, such as a subway car or restaurant. Keep in mind that, though you may be enjoying your holiday, most people around you in the métro or other places are probably going to or back from work and may be tired and thus will react very coldly to tourists babbling at the top of their lungs. If you listen to the locals talk, you will notice that they talk rather softly.
In many shops/stores in France, you should ask the shopkeeper to take items from the shelf; as opposed to picking it up yourself. This applies in liquor or wine stores, clothing stores, etc. Failure to respect this policy might result in confused and/or angered reactions from the shopkeeper.
Dress codes are fast disappearing, but if you want to avoid looking like a tourist, then avoid white sneakers, baseball caps, tracksuit pants, shorts and flip-flops (except at the beach). Generally speaking, business casual dress code is sufficient in cities and in all but the most formal occasions.
When it comes to women’s urban wear, very short skirts, largely open cleavage, or ostensibly sexy clothing in general, is considered poor taste in France, especially in the colder climates of northern France (including Paris). Women dressing this way taking public transportation or walking in the street to a club, may be heckled on the way, or get looks of disapproval.
Usual courtesy applies when entering churches, and although you may not be asked to leave, it is better to avoid short pants and halter tops.
Some restaurants will frown if you come in dressed for trekking but very few will insist upon a jacket and tie. You may be surprised by the number of French twenty-somethings who show up at a grungy bar in jacket and tie, even if obviously from a thrift-shop.
Beaches and swimming pools (in hotels) are used for getting a tan. Taking off your bra will not usually create a stir if you don’t mind a bevy of oglers. Taking off the bottom part is reserved to designated nude beaches. People on beaches are usually not offended by a young boy or girl undressed. Most resort cities insist on your wearing a shirt when leaving the beach area. Many pools will not allow baggy or “board” swim trunks, insisting on snug fitting speedo type trunks.
Breastfeeding in public is very rare but nobody will mind if you do.
Talking to people
The French language has two different forms of the pronoun “you” that are used when addressing someone in the second person. “Tu” is the second-person singular and “Vous” is nominally the second-person plural. However, in some situations, French speakers will use “Vous” for the second-person singular. While one will use “Vous” to address a group of people no matter what the circumstances, non-native speakers will invariably have some difficulty when trying to determine whether to address a person with the informal and friendly “tu” or the formal and respectful “vous.” The language even has two special verbs reflecting this difference: “tutoyer” (to address a person using “tu”), and “vouvoyer” (to address a person using “vous”), each of them carrying their own connotations and implications. Unfortunately, the rules as to when to use which form can sometimes seem maddeningly opaque to the non-native French speaker.
Generally speaking, one will only use the “tu” form to address someone in an informal situation where there is familiarity or intimacy between the two parties. For example, “tu” is used when addressing a close friend or spouse, or when an adult child is addressing a parent. “Tu” is also used in situations where the other party is very young, such as a parent speaking to a child or a schoolteacher to a student. In contrast, “vous” is used in situations where the parties are not familiar, or where it is appropriate to convey respect and/or deference. For example, an office worker might use “tu” to address co-workers that he works closely with, but he would probably use “vous” when speaking to the receptionist he rarely talks to. He certainly wouldn’t use “tu” when speaking with his boss. In that same vein, police officers and other authorities should always be addressed with “vous.”
If that’s confusing (or not confusing enough) the key thing to remember is that it’s all about distance. For example, a bartender is vous up until the moment that he or she gives you a complementary drink, at which point tu becomes more appropriate, and the use of vous would be a bit ungrateful and off-putting.
For foreigners, the best way to deal with the “tu” and “vous” problem is to address people using “vous” until invited to say “tu”, or until addressed by the first name. Doing so will look perhaps a shade old fashioned, but always respectful. In most cases, if French is not your native language most French people will overlook any such overly formal and polite language without thinking much about it anyway. Doing the opposite can be pretty rude and embarrassing in some situations, so it’s probably best to err on the side of caution.
Simplified: Use vous unless:
- the person is genuinely your friend;
- the person is under 16; or
- you’ve been explicitly told to use “tu”
As a general rule, debates, discussions, and friendly arguments are something that the French enjoy, but there are certain topics that should be treated more delicately or indirectly than others:
Politics: French people have a wide variety of opinions about many subjects. Unless you really follow French news closely, you should probably steer clear of discussing internal French politics, especially sensitive issues such as immigration – you may come across as judgmental and uninformed. Reading French newspapers to get a feel for the wide spectrum of political opinions in France – from the revolutionary left to the nationalistic right – may help. That said, don’t be discouraged from engaging in political discussions with French people, just be aware of the position that being a foreigner puts you in. Also, it is considered to be quite rude to ask a person point-blank about which candidate he/she voted for in the last election (or will vote for in the next); instead, talk about the issues and take it from there.
Religion: The French seldom advertise their religious feelings, however, and expect you to avoid doing so as well. Doing so might make people feel uneasy. It is also generally considered impolite to inquire about religious or other personal issues. While France has barred religious symbols from public places including Sikh turban, Islamic hijab and Jewish kippah on grounds of secularism, this controversial topic is best avoided in polite conversations. People practicing those faiths need to be aware of the unfriendly attitudes that some in France hold to expression of religion in public places.
Money: You should also avoid presenting yourself through what you own (house, car, etc.). It is also considered to be quite crass to discuss your salary, or to ask someone else directly about theirs. Instead express your enthusiasm about how great are the responsibilities, or how lucky you were to get there, etc.
City/Rural Differences: While it is true that roughly 1/6th of the country’s population lives in the Paris region, don’t make the mistake of reducing France to Paris or assuming that all French people act like Parisians. Life in Paris can be closer to life in London or New York City than in the rest of France; just as New Yorkers or Londoners might act and feel differently than people from, say, Oklahoma or Herefordshire, so might Parisian customs and opinions differ from those found “en province.”
The pan-European emergency number is 112
and this is probably a better choice than the numbers listed below if you don’t speak French.
Other emergency numbers are
- 15 for medical aid
- 17 for the police
- 18 for fire and rescue
These calls are free and accessible from virtually any phone, including locked cellphones. In case of a serious emergency, if you find a code-protected cellphone, enter a random code three times: the phone will lock, but you will be able to dial emergency numbers.
To call a French number from abroad, dial: international prefix + 33 + local number without the leading 0.
For example: +33 247 664 118
All French numbers have 10 digits. The first two digits are:
- 01 for the Parisian region
- 02 for the Northwest
- 03 for the Northeast
- 04 for the Southeast
- 05 for the Southwest
- 06 for cellphones
- 07 for cellphones since 2010.
- 08 have special prices (infuriatingly, from free of charge to very costly indeed – Skype numbers start with 08).
- 09 if they are attached to Voice over IP telephones connected to DSL modems from French DSL providers that integrate such functions.
You cannot drop the first two digits even if your call remains within the same area. The initial ‘0’ may be replaced by some other digit or longer code indicating a choice of long-distance operator. Don’t use this unless explicitly told to.
When speaking phone numbers, people will usually group the digits by sets of two. For example, 02 47 66 41 18 will be said as “zero two, forty-seven, sixty-six, forty-one, eighteen” (but in French, of course). The two-digit pair 00 is said as “zero zero”, not “double zero”. for example if your phone number is 02 47 66 41 18 in France, it would be said as “zéro deux, quarante-sept, soixante-six, quarante et un, dix-huit.” Difficulties can arise when numbers between 60 and 99 exist in the phone number, as the French word for seventy, “soixante dix” literally means “sixty ten”, the word for eighty, “quatre-vingt” means “four-twenty” and ninety, “quatre-vingt-dix” means “four-twenty-ten”. So when giving a number such as “72”, you might hear “soixante”, start writing a 6, and have to correct yourself when the number turns out to be “soixante-douze”.
If you find it too hard to follow, you may ask the person to say the number digit-by-digit (“chiffre par chiffre”). It would then be “zero, two, four, seven,
six, six, four, one, one, eight” (“zéro, deux, quatre, sept, six, six, quatre, un, un, huit”).
You can to visit International Dial Code Directory to find instructions about the nationals and internationals calls.
There are few companies that provide toll-free numbers (starting with 08 00) but many have numbers starting with 081, for which you pay the cost of a local call regardless of where you are in the country.
Numbers starting with 089 are heavily surcharged. They provide service to some legitimate businesses but the ones you see advertised all over the country are usually for adult services.
Cheap international calls
Dial-around services are directly available from any landline in France. No contract, no registration is required. Most dial-around services allows you to call USA, Canada, Western Europe and many other countries at local rate (tarif local) so you can easily save on your phone bill. They also work from payphones, though the first minute is surcharged by France Telecom.
You can also use Viber, WhatsApp, FaceTime using your phone and a mobile Wi-Fi hotspot provided by, for example, Bienvenue Telecom. This is probably one of the cheapest solutions for travellers in France.
To find out how to get a landline (ligne fixe) in France Just Landed gives more information on the subject of French landline providers. Another method, if you are staying for a long period, is to use VoIP over DSL, such as the Livebox or Freebox service (free long distance calls within France and to a number of countries).
Public call boxes
Phone booths are available in train or subway stations, bus stops, near tourist attractions, etc. There is at least one phone booth in every village (look on the main plaza). Due to the widespread use of mobile phones, there are now fewer booths than a few years ago. Most use a card (no coins). France Télécom public phones accept CB/Visa/MasterCard cards but almost always only with a microchip. Otherwise, post offices, café-tabacs (recognizable by a red sign hanging outside), and stores that sell magazines sell phone cards. Ask for a “carte telephonique”; these come with differing units of credit, so you may want to specify “petit” if you just want to make a short local call or two. If you get the kind with a computer chip in it, you just have to slide it into the phone, listen for the dial tone, and dial. The US-style cards require you to dial a number and then enter a code (but with spoken instructions in French).
France uses the GSM standard of cellular phones (900MHz and 1800MHz bands) used in most of the world outside of the US. There are 4 ‘physical’ network operators in France: Orange, SFR, Bouygues Télecom and Free Mobile. Other providers are mobile virtual operators based on Orange, SFR or Bouygues Télécom. France is almost totally covered but you may have difficulties using your mobile phone in rural or mountainous areas. However, for emergency numbers, the four companies are required by law to accept your call if they technically can, even if you are not one of their customers, thus maximizing your chance of being helped even in areas with spotty service.
If you are staying for some time in France it is advisable to buy a prepaid SIM card for your phone so that incoming calls are free. Additionally, French businesses and individuals are unlikely to want to call an international number to get hold of you as there will be a surcharge to them.
Most service providers such as (Orange, SFR and Bouygues Telecom) supply SIM cards in shops; for instance Orange promotes Orange holiday, which allows you to use 120 international minutes and 1000 texts within all Europe + 1GB data in France for about €40. The plan can be purchased quite easily in Orange shops.
But be aware that the credit expires when you do not top-up.
If you want to sort out your phone before you leave, LeFrenchMobile provides a prepaid service for foreigners coming to France. You do not always need identification at the point-of-purchase but you need to be have your personal details (including an address: your hotel address will do) in-hand to activate the service, even on prepaid lines. Another company that can help you efficiently sort out your international sim card needs is TravelSim. Their prepaid sim card is one of the cheapest on the market and, since it is a callback service, your can save up to 85% on your roaming charges. Additionally, all incoming sms and Skype calls are free on TravelSim numbers. With this sim card you can easily make phone calls in France and when you go outside of the country.
Lebara offer relatively cheap pre-pay data plans. (€8 for 1GB) If your phone doesn’t access the internet correctly you may need to manually set your phones’ “access point name” username/pass to web/web.
Internet access is available at cyber cafes in large and medium-sized cities all over. Service is usually around €4 per hour. However, with most homes now wired for the internet, cyber cafes are increasingly hard to find, especially outside the major cities.
In all major cities, there are multiple companies offering residential broadband service. Typical prices are €30 a month for unmetered ADSL (in speeds up to 24 megabits per second), digital HDTV over DSL and free unlimited voice-over-IP phone calls to land lines within France and about twenty other countries (EU,US,…) with external SIP access too (the price includes a modem/routeur/switch with integrated Wi-Fi MiMo access point). Broadband services are very common in France, all over the country.
You’ll also find Wi-Fi access in a lot of cafés usually those labelled a bit “trendy”. There will be a sign on the door or on the wall. Also look for the @ symbol prominently displayed, which indicates internet availability. In Paris, one popular Wi-Fi free spot is the Pompidou Centre. There is talk that the city intends to become the first major European capital providing free Wi-Fi coverage for the whole city. Public parks and libraries in Paris are also covered.
Mobile Internet Access
- MOXX.fr provides secure high quality internet network via pocket Wi-Fi rental on a short term basis for affordable prices. This service is powered by a main French internet provider.
Post offices are found in all cities and villages but their time of operation vary. In the main cities the downtown office may be open during lunchtime, typically 09:00-18:00. Most offices are only open on Saturday morning and there is only one office in Paris which is open 24/7 (in rue du Louvre).
Letter boxes are yellow.
International delivery services like FedEx, UPS, are available in cities, however you generally have to call them for them to come to you as they have very few physical locations.
Another option is to simply use La Poste with a wide network around the country and the same services as its competitors.
Toilets are available in restaurants, cafés; there are also public facilities, which generally charge a fee. Note that American euphemisms such as “restroom”, “washroom” etc. will often not be understood; ask for “toilets”. In older public facilities, particularly those that do not charge or isolated rest areas, you may encounter squat toilets.
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